Katedra św. Michała i św. Jerzego w Aldershot

Katedra św

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. Michała i św

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. Jerzego w Aldershot (ang. Cathedral of St Michael and St George, Aldershot) – katedra rzymskokatolicka w Aldershot. Główna świątynia ordynariatu wojska brytyjskiego. Mieści się przy Queen’s Avenue.
Budowa świątyni zakończyła się w 1892, konsekrowana w 1892. Reprezentuje styl neoromański. Projektantami świątyni byli dwaj wojskowi inżynierowie. Posiada jedną wieżę.
Aberdeen • Armagh • Bangor • Belfast • Birmingham • Blackburn • Bradford • Brecon • Bristol • Bury St Edmunds • Canterbury • Carlisle • Chelmsford • Chester • Chichester • Clogher • Coventry • Derby • Downpatrick • Dromore • Dundee • Durham • Edynburg • Ely • Enniskillen • Exeter • Glasgow • Gloucester • Guildford • Hereford • Inverness • Leicester • Lichfield • Lincoln • Lisburn • Liverpool • Llandaff • Londonderry • Londyn • Manchester • Millport • Newcastle • Newport • Norwich • Oban • Oksford • Perth • Peterborough • Portsmouth • Ripon • Rochester • St Albans • St Asaph • St Davids • Salisbury • Sheffield • Southwark • Southwell • Truro • Wakefield • Wells • Winchester • Worcester • York
Aberdeen • Aldershot • Armagh • Arundel • Ayr • Belfast • Birmingham • Brentwood • Cardiff • Clifton • Dundee • Edynburg • Glasgow • Lancaster • Leeds • Liverpool • Londonderry • Middlesbrough • Motherwell • Newcastle upon Tyne • Newry • Northampton • Norwich • Nottingham • Oban • Paisley • Plymouth • Portsmouth • Salford • Sheffield • Shrewsbury • Southwark • Swansea • Westminster • Wrexham
Londyn
Birmingham • Glasgow • Londyn (Prawosławny Patriarchat Antiocheński) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, św. Andrzeja) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, św. Krzyża i św

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. Michała) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, św. Mikołaja) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, Narodzenia Matki Bożej) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, Wszystkich Świętych) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, Zaśnięcia Bogurodzicy) • Londyn (Patriarchat Konstantynopolitański, św. Zofii) • Londyn (Rosyjski Kościół Prawosławny) • Londyn (Rosyjski Kościół Prawosławny poza granicami Rosji)
Aberdeen • Brechin • Dornoch • Dunblane • Dunkeld • Edynburg • Glasgow • Kirkwall • Lismore

Pełkinie

Pełkinie – wieś w Polsce położona w województwie podkarpackim, w powiecie jarosławskim, w gminie Jarosław, w Dolinie Dolnego Sanu, u podnóża lessowej krawędzi Podgórza Rzeszowskiego.
W latach 1975-1998 miejscowość położona była w województwie przemyskim.

Teren ten zasiedlony był już w czasach prehistorycznych, o czym świadczą wykopaliska, datowane na epokę brązu i epokę żelaza. Przy osadzie istniało też cmentarzysko z grobami ciałopalnymi, które świadczyły o napływie na te tereny kultury łużyckiej.
Nazwa “Pelkynye” występuje w dokumentach źródłowych w I poł. XV w.

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, kiedy wraz z dobrami jarosławskimi należała do Spytka z Tarnowa, wojewody sandomierskiego. W 1458 r. Jarosław wraz z Pełkiniami otrzymał Spytko III

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, zwany też Spytkiem z Jarosławia, syn Rafała z Jarosławia, wnuk Spytka z Tarnowa. W 1462 r. Pełkinie i Kosków (obecnie część Jarosławia) sprzedane zostały za 800 grzywien braciom Janowi i Pawłowi Łysakowskim. W końcu XVI w. jedyną właścicielką była Zofia z Odrowążów Kostkowa (prawnuczka Spytka III, wdowa po Janie Krzysztofie Tarnowskim). Jej drugi mąż, Jan Kostka prowadził poważna działalność budowlaną, m.in. rozbudował zamek w Jarosławiu i postawił murowany pałac w Pełkiniach (1575-1580?), otoczony ozdobnym ogrodem z wodotryskami. W opisie Jarosławia i okolicy, wykonanym w 1681 roku, wymienione są dwa pałace: niedokończony nowy pałac pod wałem oraz zniszczony, stary usytuowany po prawej stronie wyjścia z nowego, nad sadzawkami. Nie jest dokładnie wiadomo, kto zaczął ów drugi pałac budować.
Budowę nowego pałacu ukończył Paweł Karol Sanguszko, który od końca XVII w. był właścicielem Pełkiń. Według inwentarza z 1724 r., pałac był już gotowy i bogato wyposażony. Parter i piwnice z tej budowli zachowały się do dziś w bryle pełkińskiego pałacu. Sami Sanguszkowie nie mieszkali tutaj, majątek przekazywany był w kolejne dzierżawy.
Pod koniec XVIII w. właścicielami Pełkiń zostali Czartoryscy z Sieniawy. W pałacu mieszkali w dalszym ciągu dzierżawcy a na stałe zamieszkał w Pełkiniach w 1889 r. książę Witold Czartoryski, po ślubie z hrabiną Jadwigą z Dzieduszyckich. W 1895 r. do starego pałacu dobudowano południowe skrzydło, tzw. parkowe według projektu lwowskiego architekta Ludwika Ramułta. Dalszą rozbudowę projektował krakowski architekt Franciszek Mączyński. Wieloczłonowy korpus pałacu z wieżyczkami, ganeczkami i tarasami utrzymany jest w eklektycznym typie szwajcarskiego zameczku.
Według starych zapisków w XVI w. istniał tu już park, przekształcany przez kolejnych właścicieli. Obecny wygląd zawdzięcza park księciu Witoldowi Czartoryskiemu, dendrologowi z zamiłowania który powiększył jego teren (18 ha), rozciągając go na pobliskie zbocze pobliskiego wzniesienia i nadał mu charakter parku krajobrazowego w stylu angielskim. W centralnej części posadzono wiele drzew obcego pochodzenia (magnolie, kasztanowce, daglezje, choina kanadyjska i inne). Rosną tu też okazałe dębów, lipy i buki oraz cisy w formach drzewiastych i kilka limb. W dolnej części parku znajdują się przestronne łąki ze stawami. W górnej części ciekawa kapliczka z XIX i XX w.
Czartoryscy rezydowali tu do 1944 r

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. W sąsiedztwie parku zachowały się pozostałości zabudowań folwarcznych z końca XIX i pocz. XX w. (rządcówka, lamus, stajnia, stodoła i domek ogrodnika).
Urodzony w Pełkiniach książę Jan Franciszek Czartoryski został beatyfikowany przez Jana Pawła II w gronie 108 męczenników z okresu II wojny światowej (bł. o. Michał OP).
Wiosną 1941 r. na terenie wsi Niemcy urządzili obóz dla jeńców sowieckich, stalag 37. Obóz zajmował teren o powierzchni ok. 70 ha i mógł pomieścić jednorazowo do 30 000 ludzi. Był to tzw. obóz przejściowy, po krótkim pobycie jeńców wywożono stad dalej w głąb Rzeszy

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, do Bełżca lub Oświęcimia. Na terenie obozu zgnięła, głównie z głodu, niezidentyfikowana liczba żołnierzy sowieckich. W wyniku ekshumacji wykonanej w 1944 zlokalizowano 22 masowe mogiły ofiar obozu. Po wywiezieniu ostatnich jeńców wiosną 1942 obszar obozu zmniejszono, przeznaczając go dla Żydów. Podczas okupacji wieś była aktywnie zaangażowana w ruch oporu, co wielu jej mieszkańców przypłaciło życiem. W kwietniu 1942 grupa żołnierzy AK przecięła druty ogradzające obóz, umożliwiając ucieczkę ok. 70 jeńcom. W styczniu 1944 Niemcy rozstrzelali w Pełkiniach 232 Polaków, przywiezionych z krakowskiego więzienia Montelupich.
Pełkinie były dawniej wsią polsko-ukraińską, Ukraińców wysiedlono po wojnie. Parafia greckokatolicka i cerkiew były tu od czasów przedrozbiorowych. W 1880 r. powstała w Pełkiniach pierwsza szkołą. Parafię rzymskokatolicką erygowano w 1945 r.
Pałac i park przetrwały do II wojny światowej. W 1945 r. zniszczony pałac, zdewastowany park, obiekty gospodarcze i 40 ha ziemi zostały przejęte przez Referat Opieki Społecznej Urzędu Powiatowego w Jarosławiu i po remoncie adaptowane na Państwowy Dom Pomocy Społecznej dla Dorosłych (znajduje się w południowej części wsi, zwanej Wygarki)

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.
Z dniem 10.09.2006 nastąpiło nadanie imienia szkole podstawowej. Błogosławionego ojca Michała Czartoryskiego, oraz uroczyste otwarcie nowo powstałej sali gimnastycznej która znajduje się przy siedzibie szkoły podstawowej i gimnazjum w Pełkiniach. Gimnazjum w Pełkiniach w ramach programu poznawania Europy prowadzi współpracę z litewskim gimnazjum w Trokach.
Koniaczów • Kostków • Leżachów-Osada • Makowisko • Morawsko • Munina • Pełkinie • Sobiecin • Surochów • Tuczempy • Wola Buchowska • Wólka Pełkińska • Zgoda

Little Johnny Jet

Little Johnny Jet is a 1953 Metro Goldwyn Mayer cartoon short directed by Tex Avery about a “family” of airplanes. This is also comparable to the 1952 short, One Cab’s Family.
The cartoon follows the story of a B-29 Bomber named John, who is married to Mary, a Douglas DC-3. John can’t seem to find work at any airport because they’re looking for jets. He then finds out he and Mary are going to have a kid, so needing to find work, he heads off to reenlist in the Air Force, but finds even they won’t take him back in, as they’re looking for jets as well, which further angers him. Finally Junior arrives and John is very pleased…until he realizes he’s a jet also, making him lose his mind (but he doesn’t take it out on Junior).
When reading the paper the next day, John sees the ad for a jet contest held by the United States Government where the winner gets a huge contract. Plenty fed up with jets, he goes to enter the contest as well to try to show them up. Realizing what risk he’s putting himself in, Mary goes after him with Junior in tow. En route to the contest, John meets a B-29 general who smokes Douglas MacArthur’s trademark corncob pipe and has Bataan written amidst his five stars

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. When John asks him, the general declines to enter the contest and states, parodying MacArthur’s farewell address to the U.S. Congress, that “older planes never fly, they just fade away,” before literally fading away.
At the contest, John lines up at the starting line with the rest of the jets. Mary catches up and tries in vain to reason with him, but gets shoved away by him. While this was happening, Junior gets out of the baby buggy and get in the fuselage of John, and by the time Mary realizes it’s too late.
At the green flag, the jets all but disappear while John sputters badly to take off and run the race. Within no time, his propellers had had enough and detach from his body, sending him into a nose dive for Earth. Junior realizes what’s happening and manages to get out in time to grab him by the tail and save him

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. When John realized he hadn’t crashed, he looks back and sees Junior holding his tail and flying him along. After happily praising him for saving him

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, they then kick it into high gear and run the race, tearing past the other contestants, and are shown flying around the world, going by certain landmarks with funny things happening (The Eiffel Tower pulling itself open to let them through, The Leaning Tower of Pisa tilting the other way, they fly by a huge cloud of smog which is completely removed to reveal Los Angeles, The Statue of Liberty’s dress blows open to reveal then-rather risque lingerie on her, leaving Junior perplexed, etc.)

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, and a few non-landmark things as well (a blimp gets cut in half to look like a watermelon, a sky-written ad for a cola changes to “BURP!”, and an ocean liner gets shrunk down to a tugboat.)
They easily win the race and the government contract..

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.for Junior. John’s joy is soon sort of crushed when he is told they need ten-thousand more just like him, realizing he and Mary have some procreating to do.
One Cab’s Family

Return to the Lost Planet

Return to the Lost Planet is a 1954 juvenile science fiction novel by Angus MacVicar, published by Burke, London. It is the second of the Lost Planet series, which was adapted for radio and television.
There are six novels in the Lost Planet series: The Lost Planet (1953), Return to the Lost Planet (1954), Secret of the Lost Planet (1955), Red Fire on the Lost Planet (1959)

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, Peril on the Lost Planet (1960) and Space Agent from the Lost Planet.
It was the first science fiction series ever translated into Hebrew and had considerable impact on the development of this genre in Israel.
The plot follows on precisely from The Lost Planet.
A previous expedition to Hesikos, the wandering ‘lost planet’ which is now within a few days flight of Earth, has crash-landed, and Dr Lachlan McKinnon (its organiser), Professor Hermanoff and American engineer Spike Stranahan are marooned. McKinnon’s colleagues must build and launch a spaceship from their Scottish base to travel to Hesikos, but to construct the ship they must obtain the expert assistance of Dr Andrieff, a scientist and engineer, who risks exile from his Eastern European country by so doing.
The crew, consisting of McKinnon’s nephew Jeremy Grant, Professor Lars Bergman, science student Janet Campbell and Cockney housekeeper Madge, rescue the three explorers, who have survived the harsh winter, and start to explore the planet in a jeep. They find signs that Hesikos was once inhabited, and that atomic bombs were detonated long ago on the surface

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. Escaping from a deluge of water as a river suddenly rises, they take refuge in a cave, which leads to a door. The door opens to admit them to underground caverns where the inhabitants of the planet now live.
The people are highly intelligent and human-like, communicating with the visitors by telepathy, which is facilitated by a machine called the Electronome. They explain that since their planet’s orbit was destroyed eons ago by atomic experiments, they have lived a peaceful underground existence, only emerging in the mild summer season to gather fruits and plants. Their current leader is Solveg, with his daughter Asa.
Power for the colony is supplied by hydroelectric generators, but when a rockfall blocks the underground river, all power is lost. The inhabitants have a fatalistic philosophy that allows them to face inevitable destruction stoically, but McKinnon cannot accept this. Grant and Stranahan use the explosives they have saved from the flood to clear the blockage — and Hesikos is saved.
The grateful Hesikans help to repair the visitors’ spaceship and they return to Earth, accompanied by Asa

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, who hopes to spread her philosophy of peace.

Cantillation

Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services. The chants are written and notated in accordance with the special signs or marks printed in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh) to complement the letters and vowel points. These marks are known in English as accents and in Hebrew as טעמי המקרא ta`amei ha-mikra or just טעמים te`amim. Some of these signs were also sometimes used in medieval manuscripts of the Mishnah. The musical motifs associated with the signs are known in Hebrew as niggun or neginot (not to be confused with Hasidic nigun) and in Yiddish as טראָפ trop: the word trope is sometimes used in English with the same meaning.

A primary purpose of the cantillation signs is to guide the chanting of the sacred texts during public worship. Very roughly speaking, each word of text has a cantillation mark at its primary accent and associated with that mark is a musical phrase that tells how to sing that word. The reality is more complex, with some words having two or no marks and the musical meaning of some marks dependent upon context. There are different sets of musical phrases associated with different sections of the Bible. The music varies with different Jewish traditions and individual cantorial styles.
The cantillation signs also provide information on the syntactical structure of the text and some say they are a commentary on the text itself, highlighting important ideas musically. The tropes are not random strings but follow a set and describable grammar. The very word ta’am means “taste” or “sense”, the point being that the pauses and intonation denoted by the accents (with or without formal musical rendition) bring out the sense of the passage.
There are two systems of cantillation marks in the Tanakh. One is used in the twenty-one prose books, while the other appears in the three poetical books of Psalms, Proverbs and Job. Except where otherwise stated, this article describes the “prose” system.
The current system of cantillation notes has its historical roots in the Tiberian masorah. The cantillation signs are included in Unicode as characters U+0591 through U+05AF in the Hebrew alphabet block.
The names of the cantillation signs are not quite the same as between the Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Italian and Yemenite traditions; for example Sephardim use qadma to mean what Ashkenazim call pashta, and azla to mean what Ashkenazim call qadma. In this article, as in almost all Hebrew grammars, the Ashkenazi terminology is used. The names in other traditions are shown in the table below.
The cantillation signs serve three functions:
In general, each word in the Tanach has one cantillation sign. This may be either a disjunctive, showing a division between that and the following word, or a conjunctive, joining the two words (like a slur in music). Thus, disjunctives divide a verse into phrases, and within each phrase all the words except the last carry conjunctives. (There are two types of exception to the rule about words having only one sign. A group of words joined by hyphens is regarded as one word so they only have one accent between them. Conversely, a long word may have two—e.g., a disjunctive on the stressed syllable and the related conjunctive two syllables before in place of meteg.)
The disjunctives are traditionally divided into four levels, with lower level disjunctives marking less important breaks.
The general conjunctive is munach. Depending on which disjunctive follows, this may be replaced by mercha, mahpach, darga, qadma, telisha qetannah or yerach ben yomo.
One other symbol is mercha kefulah, double mercha. There is some argument about whether this is another conjunctive or an occasional replacement for tevir.
Disjunctives have a function somewhat similar to punctuation in Western languages. Sof pasuq could be thought of as a full stop, atnach as a semi-colon, second level disjunctives as commas and third level disjunctives as commas or unmarked. Where two words are syntactically bound together (for example, pene ha-mayim, “the face of the waters”), the first invariably carries a conjunctive.
The cantillation signs are often an important aid in the interpretation of a passage. For example, the words qol qore bamidbar panu derekh YHWH (Isaiah 40:3) is translated in the Authorised Version as “The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD”. As the word qore takes the high-level disjunctive zaqef qaton this meaning is discouraged by the cantillation marks.[citation needed] Accordingly the New Revised Standard Version translates “A voice cries out: ‘In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD, …'” while the New Jewish Publication Society Version has “A voice rings out: ‘Clear in the desert a road for the LORD’.”
Most cantillation signs are written on the consonant of the stressed syllable of a word. This also shows where the most important note of the musical motif should go.
A few signs always go on the first or last consonant of a word. This may have been for musical reasons, or it may be to distinguish them from other accents of similar shape. For example pashta, which goes on the last consonant, otherwise looks like qadma, which goes on the stressed syllable.
Some signs are written (and sung) differently when the word is not stressed on its last syllable. Pashta on a word of this kind is doubled, one going on the stressed syllable and the other on the last consonant. Geresh is doubled unless it occurs on a non-finally-stressed word or follows qadma (to form the qadma ve-azla phrase).
Cantillation signs guide the reader in applying a chant to Biblical readings. This chant is technically regarded as a ritualized form of speech intonation rather than as a musical exercise like the singing of metrical hymns: for this reason Jews always speak of saying or reading a passage rather than of singing it. (In Yiddish the word is leynen ‘read’, derived from Latin legere, giving rise to the Jewish English verb “to leyn”.)
The musical value of the cantillation signs serves the same function for Jews worldwide, but the specific tunes vary between different communities. The most common tunes today are as follows.
Note: There has been an attempted reconstruction of the original melody by Suzanne Haïk-Vantoura, on the basis of the shapes and positions of the marks and without any reference to existing melodies, as described in her book La musique de la Bible révélée and her records. That reconstruction assumes the signs represent the degrees of various musical scales, that is individual notes, which puts it at odds with all existing traditions where the signs invariably represent melodic motives. Musicologists have rejected her results as dubious and her methodology as flawed: cf. Dalia Cohen and Daniel Weill. “Progress in Deductive Research on the Original Performance of Tiberian Accents (Te’amim).” Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference of Jewish Studies, Division D, Vol. II (Jerusalem, 1986): 265–80; cf. also, e.g., the review by P.T. Daniels, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 112, No. 3 (Jul.–Sep., 1992), p. 499.
In the Ashkenazic musical tradition for cantillation, each of the local geographical customs includes a total of six major and numerous minor separate melodies for cantillation:
The Ashkenazic tradition preserves no melody for the special cantillation notes of Psalms, Proverbs, and Job, which were not publicly read in the synagogue by European Jews. However, the Ashkenazic yeshiva known as Aderet Eliyahu, or (more informally) Zilberman’s, in the Old City of Jerusalem, uses an adaptation of the Syrian cantillation-melody for these books, and this is becoming more popular among other Ashkenazim as well.[citation needed]
At the beginning of the twentieth century there was a single Ottoman-Sephardic tradition (no doubt with local variations) covering Turkey, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. Today the Jerusalem-Sephardic, Syrian, Egyptian and Baghdadi melodies recognisably belong to a single family. For example, in these traditions the Torah reading is always or almost always in Maqam Sigah. There are some variations, among individual readers as well as among communities: for example the Egyptian melody is related to the more elaborate and cantorial form of the Syrian melody. The Karaite tradition, being based on the Egyptian, also forms part of this group.
Another recognisable family consists of the Iraqi (Mosul and Iraqi diaspora), Spanish-Moroccan and Spanish and Portuguese melodies. The probable reason for the occurrence of similar melodies at opposite ends of the Arab world is that they represent the remains of an old Arab-Jewish tradition not overlaid by the later Ottoman-Sephardic tradition that spread to the countries in between. There may also have been some convergence between the London Spanish and Portuguese and Iraqi melodies during British rule in India and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia

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The Jews of North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and Yemen all had local musical traditions for cantillation. When these Jewish communities emigrated (mostly to Israel) during the twentieth century, they brought their musical traditions with them. But as the immigrants themselves grew older, many particular national melodies began to be forgotten, or to become assimilated into the “Jerusalem Sephardic” melting-pot.
As with the Ashkenazim, there is one tune for Torah readings and a different tune for haftarot. Spanish and Portuguese Jews have a special tune for the Ten Commandments when read according to the ta’am elyon, known as “High Na’um”, which is also used for some other words and passages which it is desired to emphasize. Other communities, such as the Syrian Jews, observe the differences between the two sets of cantillation marks for the Ten Commandments but have no special melody for ta’am ‘elyon. There is no special tune for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur in any Sephardic tradition. As with Ashkenazim, the normal musical value of cantillation signs is replaced by a “coda” motif at the end of each Torah reading and of each haftarah verse (though there is no special coda for the end of the haftarah), suggesting a common origin for the Sephardi and Ashkenazi chants.
Eastern Jewish communities have no liturgical tradition of reading Ecclesiastes, and there is no public liturgical reading of Song of Songs on Passover, though brief extracts may be read after the morning service during the first half of Nisan. (Individuals may read it after the Passover Seder, and many communities recite it every Friday night.) There are specialized tunes for Song of Songs, Ruth, Esther and Lamentations. The prose passages at the beginning and end of the book of Job may be read either to the tune of Song of Songs or to that of Ruth, depending on the community. The Ruth tune is generally the “default” tune for any book of the Ketuvim (Hagiographa) that does not have a tune of its own.
Unlike the Ashkenazic tradition, the eastern traditions, in particular that of the Syrian Jews, include melodies for the special cantillation of Psalms, Proverbs and the poetic parts of Job. In many eastern communities, Proverbs is read on the six Sabbaths between Passover and Shavuot, Job on the Ninth of Av, and Psalms are read on a great many occasions. The cantillation melody for Psalms can also vary depending on the occasion. The Spanish and Portuguese Jews have no tradition for the rendering of the Psalms according to the cantillation marks, but the melody used for several psalms in the evening service is noticeably similar to that of Syrian psalm cantillation, and may represent the remnants of such a tradition.
Yemenite cantillation has a total of eight distinctive motifs

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, falling within four main patterns:
This is true equally of the system used for the Torah and the systems used for the other books. It appears to be a relic of the Babylonian system, which also recognised only eight types of disjunctive and no conjunctives.
Some communities had a simplified melody for the Torah, used in teaching it to children, as distinct from the mode used in synagogue. (This should not be confused with the lernen steiger used for studying the Mishnah and Talmud.) For example, the Yemenite community teaches a simplified melody for children, to be used both in school and when they are called to read the sixth aliyah. The simplified melody is also used for the reading of the Targum, which is generally performed by a young boy.
Conversely, the Syrian community knows two types of Torah cantillation, a simpler one for general use and a more elaborate one used by professional hazzanim. It is probable that the simpler melody was originally a teaching mode. Today however it is the mode in general use, and is also an ancestor of the “Jerusalem-Sephardic” melody.
Some communities had a simplified melody for the Prophets, distinct from that used in reading the Haftarah: the distinction is mentioned in one medieval Sephardic source.
The following table shows the names of the t’amim in the Ashkenazi, Sephardi, and Italian traditions together with their Unicode symbols. The following points should be noted.
The following additional symbols are found in the three poetical books: their names do not differ among the various traditions.
For learning purposes, the t’amim are arranged in a traditional order of recitation called a “zarqa table”, showing both the names and the symbols themselves. These tables are often printed at the end of a Chumash (Hebrew Pentateuch).
The order of recitation bears some relation to the groups in which the signs are likely to occur in a typical Biblical verse, but differs in detail between different communities. Below are traditional Ashkenazi and Sephardi orders, though variations are found in both communities.
Numbers 35:5 (in Parshat Mas’ei) has two notes found nowhere else in the Torah:
The rules governing the sequence of cantillation marks are as follows.
The following sequences are commonly found.
Three systems of Hebrew punctuation (including vowels and cantillation symbols) have been used: the Babylonian, the Palestinian and the Tiberian

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, only the last of which is used today.
Babylonian Biblical manuscripts from the Geonic period contain no cantillation marks in the current sense, but small Hebrew letters are used to mark significant divisions within a verse. Up to eight different letters are found, depending on the importance of the break and where it occurs in the verse: these correspond roughly to the disjunctives of the Tiberian system. For example, in some manuscripts the letter tav, for tevir (break), does duty for both Tiberian tevir and zaqef. In general there are no symbols for the conjunctives, though some late manuscripts use the Tiberian symbols for these. There is also no equivalent for low-grade disjunctives such as telishah gedolah: these are generally replaced by the equivalent of zaqef or revia.
Nothing is known of the musical realization of these marks, but it seems likely that they represent breaks or variations in a set melody applied to each verse. (A somewhat similar system is used in manuscripts of the Qur’an to guide the reader in fitting the chant to the verse: see Qur’an reading.)
This system is reflected in the cantillation practices of the Yemenite Jews, who now use the Tiberian symbols, but tend to have musical motifs only for the disjunctives and render the conjunctives in a monotone. It is notable that the Yemenites have only eight disjunctive motifs, thus clearly reflecting the Babylonian notation. The same is true of the Karaite mode for the haftarah; while in the Sephardi haftarah modes different disjunctives often have the same or closely similar motifs, reducing the total number of effective motifs to something like the same number.
The Babylonian system, as mentioned above, is mainly concerned with showing breaks in the verse. Early Palestinian manuscripts, by contrast, are mainly concerned with showing phrases: for example the tifcha-etnachta, zarqa-segolta and pashta-zaqef sequences, with or without intervening unaccented words. These sequences are generally linked by a series of dots, beginning or ending with a dash or a dot in a different place to show which sequence is meant. Unaccented words (which in the Tiberian system carry conjunctives) are generally shown by a dot following the word, as if to link it to the following word. There are separate symbols for more elaborate tropes like pazer and telisha gedolah.
The manuscripts are extremely fragmentary, no two of them following quite the same conventions, and these marks may represent the individual reader’s aide-memoire rather than a formal system of punctuation (for example, vowel signs are often used only where the word would otherwise be ambiguous). In one manuscript, presumably of somewhat later date than the others, there are separate marks for different conjunctives, actually outnumbering those in the Tiberian system (for example, munach before etnachta has a different sign from munach before zaqef), and the overall system approaches the Tiberian in comprehensiveness

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. In some other manuscripts, in particular those containing Targumim rather than original text, the Tiberian symbols have been added by a later hand. In general, it may be observed that the Palestinian and Tiberian systems are far more closely related to each other than either is to the Babylonian.
This system of phrasing is reflected in the Sephardic cantillation modes, in which the conjunctives (and to some extent the “near companions” such as tifcha, pashta and zarqa) are rendered as flourishes leading into the motif of the following disjunctive rather than as motifs in their own right.
The somewhat inconsistent use of dots above and below the words as disjunctives is closely similar to that found in Syriac texts. Kahle also notes some similarity with the punctuation of Samaritan Hebrew.
By the tenth century C.E., the chant in use in Palestine had clearly become more complex, both because of the existence of pazer, geresh and telisha motifs in longer verses and because the realization of a phrase ending with a given type of break varied according to the number of words and syllables in the phrase. The Tiberian Masoretes therefore decided to invent a comprehensive notation with a symbol on each word, to replace the fragmentary systems previously in use. In particular it was necessary to invent a range of different conjunctive accents to show how to introduce and elaborate the main motif in longer phrases. (For example, tevir is preceded by mercha, a short flourish, in shorter phrases but by darga, a more elaborate run of notes, in longer phrases.) The system they devised is the one in use today, and is found in Biblical manuscripts such as the Aleppo Codex. A Masoretic treatise called Diqduqe ha-te’amim (precise rules of the accents) by Aaron ben Moses ben Asher survives, though both the names and the classification of the accents differ somewhat from those of the present day.
As the accents were (and are) not shown on a Torah scroll, it was found necessary to have a person making hand signals to the reader to show the tune, as in the Byzantine system of neumes. This system of cheironomy survives in some communities to the present day, notably in Italy. It is speculated that both the shapes and the names of some of the accents (e.g. tifcha, literally “hand-breadth”) may refer to the hand signals rather than to the syntactical functions or melodies denoted by them. Today in most communities there is no system of hand signals and the reader learns the melody of each reading in advance.
The Tiberian system spread quickly and was accepted in all communities by the 13th century. Each community re-interpreted its reading tradition so as to allocate one short musical motif to each symbol: this process has gone furthest in the Western Ashkenazi and Ottoman (Jerusalem-Sephardi, Syrian etc.) traditions. Learning the accents and their musical rendition is now an important part of the preparations for a bar mitzvah, as this is the first occasion on which a person reads from the Torah in public.
In the early period of the Reform movement there was a move to abandon the system of cantillation and give Scriptural readings in normal speech (in Hebrew or in the vernacular). In recent decades, however, traditional cantillation has been restored in many communities.
The system of cantillation signs used throughout the Tanakh is replaced by a very different system for these three poetic books. Many of the signs may appear the same or similar at first glance, but most of them serve entirely different functions in these three books. (Only a few signs have functions similar to what they do in the rest of the Tanakh.) The short narratives at the beginning and end of Job use the “regular” system, but the bulk of the book (the poetry) uses the special system. For this reason, these three books are referred to as sifrei emet (Books of Truth), the word emet meaning “truth”

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, but also being an acronym for the first letters of the three books (Iyov, Mishle, Tehillim).
A verse may be divided into one, two or three stichs. In a two-stich verse, the first stich ends with atnach. In a three-stich verse, the first stich ends with oleh ve-yored, which looks like mahpach (above the word) followed by tifcha, on either the same word or two consecutive words, and the second stich ends with atnach.
Major disjunctives within a stich are revia qaton (immediately before oleh ve-yored), revia gadol (elsewhere) and tzinnor (which looks like zarqa). The first (or only) stich in a verse may be divided by dechi, which looks like tifcha but goes under the first letter of the word to the right of the vowel sign. The last stich in a two- or three-stich verse may be divided by revia megurash, which looks like geresh combined with revia.
Minor disjunctives are pazer gadol, shalshelet gedolah, azla legarmeh (looking like qadma) and mehuppach legarmeh (looking like mahpach): all of these except pazer are followed by a pesiq. Mehuppach without a pesiq sometimes occurs at the beginning of a stich.
All other accents are conjunctives.
Some manuscripts of early Rabbinic literature contain marks for partial or systematic cantillation. This is true of the Sifra, and especially of Genizah fragments of the Mishnah.
Today many communities have a special tune for the Mishnaic passage “Bammeh madliqin” in the Friday night service. Otherwise, there is often a customary intonation used in the study of Mishnah or Talmud, somewhat similar to an Arabic mawwal, but this is not reduced to a precise system like that for the Biblical books. Recordings have been made for Israeli national archives, and Frank Alvarez-Pereyre has published a book-length study of the Syrian tradition of Mishnah reading on the basis of these recordings.
The Jewish born Christian convert Ezekiel Margoliouth translated the New Testament to Hebrew in 1865 with cantillation marks added. It is the only completely cantillated translation of the New Testament. The translation was published by the London Jews’ Society.
Wikimedia Commons: Free content audio recordings of cantillation at the Wikimedia Commons are listed at category:Cantillation and/or category:Jewish cantillation.
The recordings held at the Commons are organized by the Vayavinu Bamikra Project at Wikisource in the following languages:
Torah readings from different parts of Italy are recorded in the CD Italian Jewish Musical Traditions from the Leo Levi Collection (1954–1961) (Anthology of Music Traditions in Israel, 14, edited by Edwin Seroussi).

José Antonio Etxebarrieta

Aidez à ajouter des liens en plaçant le code [[José Antonio Etxebarrieta]] dans les articles relatifs au sujet.
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José Antonio Etxebarrieta Ortiz

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, (également José Antonio Echebarrieta Ortiz) (Bilbao, 1940 – 1973) est un avocat espagnol d’origine basque, et dirigeant d’ETA, frère de Txabi Etxebarrieta.

Militant d’EGI

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, il est arrêté pour la première fois en 1958 alors qu’il distribuait des tracts à Begoña et emprisonné deux mois à Larrinaga. Une fois libéré, il va à Paris, où il a des confrontations dures avec la direction du Parti Nationaliste Basque, ce qui le pousse vers l’ETA.
L’été de 1963 il tombe gravement malade et on diagnostique une lomielitis de la colonne, une maladie rare provoquée par l’inflammation de la moelle épinière. Complètement paralysé pendant trois ans, il passe de longues saisons dans un sanatorium, où il reçoit des visites fréquentes de son frère Txabi. Pendant la convalescence il lit des classiques marxistes, dont Lénine.
En 1966 il commence à marcher avec des béquilles et prépare le Rapport Txatarra pour la V Assemblée, qui se convertira en base argumentaire pour expulser de l’ETA dans le secteur ce qui deviendra par la suite le Mouvement Communiste d’Euskadi.
Au sein d’ETA il s’est chargé de la rédaction de la publication Zutik. À l’occasion du procès de Burgos il s’est chargé de la défense de Xabier Izko de la Iglesia

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, accusé d’être l’auteur matériel de l’assassinat de Melitón Manzanas,. En 48 heures il rédige les 80 feuillets d’arguments contre l’accusation qui pesait sur Izko. Il collaborera postérieurement avec Gisèle Halimi dans l’élaboration du célèbre livre sur le procès.
En mars 1973, se produit une aggravation soudaine de sa maladie. Malgré cela, il prend part à la défense des militants d’ETA devant un Conseil de Guerre. Il est mort le 3 avril 1973.

Internet Chess Club

The Internet Chess Club (ICC) is a commercial Internet chess server devoted to the play and discussion of chess and chess variants. ICC currently has over 30,000 subscribing members. It was the first Internet chess server and is the first and largest pay to play chess server

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The first Internet chess server (ICS), programmed by Michael Moore and Richard Nash, was launched on 15 January 1992. Players logged in by telnet, and the board was displayed as ASCII text. Bugs in the server software allowed illegal moves, false checkmates etc. Over time more and more features were added to ICS, such as Elo ratings and a choice of graphical interfaces. The playing pool grew steadily, many of the server bugs were fixed, and players began to have higher expectations for stability.
In 1992, Daniel Sleator (darooha) volunteered to take over as head programmer, and began a large overhaul of the server code. He addressed, among other issues, the frequent complaint that players would lose blitz games on time due to Internet lag. In 1994, he copyrighted the code, and began receiving purchase offers from companies wanting to commercialize the server. On 1 March 1995

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, Sleator announced his intentions to commercialize ICS, renaming it the Internet Chess Club, or ICC, and charging a yearly membership fee. The membership is free for players with a Grandmaster or International Master title.
Some programmers who had worked on the original ICS became unhappy with what they saw as the commoditization of their project

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. Led by Chris Petroff, they formed the Free Internet Chess Server (FICS), which to this day continues to allow everyone to access all features for free.
On 29 May 2007, the World Chess Network was bought by the Internet Chess Club. It was then merged with Chess Live, another Internet chess server acquired by Internet Chess Club from GamesParlor. The result of the acquisition and merger was the formation of World Chess Live, a new Internet chess server that merged features of both services. World Chess Live merged into, and become part of, the Internet Chess Club on 19 March 2012. For some years, the Spanish on-line chess portal JaqueMate.org had had technological support provided by ICC. The portal closed on 30 April 2013 with members transferred to ICC.
ICC’s core service is the facility to play chess games (and a number of chess variants) against other members and computers coupled with a rating system. ICC also offers many different types of tournaments. ICC recently partnered with the United States Chess Federation (USCF) to provide USCF rated online quick and blitz tournaments (these online ratings are separate from the USCF over-the-board quick and blitz rating systems apart from the initial seeding of the online quick and blitz ratings for unrated players). Members can also watch live broadcasts of tournaments with grandmaster commentary on Chess.FM, watch games involving titled players being played on ICC and challenge grandmasters in simultaneous exhibitions. The site also offers access to libraries of games, recorded lectures and private lessons (at additional cost).
ICC provides the proprietary Windows BlitzIn software, currently at version 3.11, and the Dasher program, currently at version 1.5.8. There are other software front-ends which work with the ICC system including those for the Macintosh and iPad. Along with other major chess sites, ICC has sophisticated methods to detect computer cheating

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The commercialisation of ICC was extensively criticised by users, particularly that Daniel Sleator was charging a subscription to use a system that had been developed by others. Following complaints by students, they were offered a 50% discount.
The security of the system was criticised in December 2005 with claims that communications between ICC and users could easily be read and that the timestamping could be defeated

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Kirk Sutherland

Kirk Sutherland is a fictional character in the UK television ITV soap opera, Coronation Street. The character first appeared onscreen during the episode airing on 22 May 2000, played by an uncredited actor. When Kirk reappeared five months later, the role was now played by Andrew Whyment who has continued to play the role to date.

Kirk first appears when Tyrone Dobbs (Alan Halsall) mistakenly believes that he is Maria’s (Samia Ghadie) boyfriend. Maria explains that Kirk is her brother. Kirk briefly leaves Weatherfield after the mistake, but shortly returns soon after. He goes for a drink with local resident Steve (Simon Gregson).
Kirk reappears after being kicked out of The Rovers Return Inn by proprietor Fred Elliott (John Savident), who believes him to be too young to drink. He is the older brother of Maria, with whom he owns Weatherfield kennels. He is good friends with Tyrone and Jason Grimshaw (Ryan Thomas) and an ex-boyfriend of Fiz Stape (Jennie McAlpine) whom he had met at a flat-decorating party. He is also friends with Les Battersby (Bruce Jones)

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, with whom he once lived, acting as best man at his wedding to Cilla Brown (Wendi Peters). He also grows quite close to Cilla’s son Chesney (Sam Aston) while he’s with Fiz. Kirk dumps Fiz after he finds out that she had spent the night at her ex-boyfriend Tyrone’s house.
Kirk meets Thelma Clegg, who hires him to shampoo her poodle. She is so impressed that she asks him to call round to her house regularly. Fiz is suspicious and follows Kirk to Thelma’s house where she can see Kirk being entertained by Thelma belly-dancing in her living room. Kirk professes his innocence and says Thelma would not let him out of the house.
Kirk loses the kennels

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, following a lawsuit over the accidental neutering of a pedigree specimen, and within a week proposes to his girlfriend, Fiz. She dumps him immediately, and tells him that she no longer wants to be with him. She leaves Kirk to be with her first lover, John Stape (Graeme Hawley), leaving Kirk feeling broken and humiliated. Later that month, Kirk and Jamie Baldwin (Rupert Hill) rescue Claire Peacock (Julia Haworth), Kirk’s next-door-neighbour from her burning house. As a reward, Claire’s husband, Ashley (Steven Arnold) gives Kirk a job at his butcher’s shop. After Cilla receives £45,000 for a necklace, she lets Kirk know first and leaves the street for Las Vegas. Kirk is left to look after her son, Chesney. Kirk fails to provide adequate care for Chesney, and he is subsequently taken into foster care. When Fiz returns from a holiday

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, she is furious but forgives Kirk. She manages to get Chesney home but she has to move in with them, making Kirk believe she still has feelings for him.
Kirk leaves to visit his parents in Cyprus for a several weeks. In the days leading up to his return, Fiz dreads him coming home, while she is providing a home for Chesney. On his return, he breaks the news that he has a new girlfriend called Julie Carp (Katy Cavanagh), whom he fell in love with in Cyprus. Fiz has taken a dislike to Julie, who then moved in with them at their house.
Kirk’s nephew Paul is born stillborn and he consoles his sister. His brother-in-law Liam Connor (Rob James-Collier) dies and his parents return to comfort their daughter over the loss of her husband. In November 2008, Kirk, Chesney and later Fiz visit Cilla in South Africa, only to find she’s up to her old tricks again. She enters a competition for $500,000 and Kirk poses as a mentally disabled boy, Chesney as a paralyzed boy, Cilla’s new “Les” as “old” Les and Fiz as a nun. While on a safari, Kirk saves them from a bush near wild animals. The “family” lose the competition when Chesney reveals Cilla’s lies after she lied about ‘returning’ to Weatherfield. March 2009, Julie admits she thinks she is pregnant but it turns out to be a false alarm. After this Kirk begins to see that they are drifting apart, as they are too different, and he ends their relationship. However, Kirk supports Julie after the revelation that Colin Grimshaw (Edward DeSouza), Eileen’s (Sue Cleaver) father, is also her father.
Kirk decides to move out of number 5, as he feels he is in the way of Fiz’s life. He packs his bags and leaves, only to turn up next door at Maria’s. A few weeks later, he decides to pack and move in with Tyrone and Molly (Vicky Binns). He then moves out and back into Maria’s when she goes to live in Ireland with the baby and Liam’s parents after Tony Gordon (Gray O’Brien) admits to having Liam killed.
Kirk applies for a job at Underworld as a machinist but ultimately loses out to Izzy Armstrong (Cherylee Houston). However, owner Carla Connor (Alison King) offers him a job as delivery driver. Kirk soon forms a strong friendship with Izzy, and as a result his feelings for her grow stronger. When Gary Windass (Mikey North) is arrested for assaulting a lad who was hassling Izzy, Kirk makes a false statement to the police that it was him who committed the crime. As a result, Gary’s Army career is not in jeopardy and this is a relief to Izzy, who has started to harbour feelings for Gary, much to Kirk’s dismay. The charges against Kirk are dropped to a lack of sufficient evidence, and he is a free man.
Kirk helps Tyrone come to terms with the fact that baby Jack is not his son as he and Maria visit him on Christmas Day. He is later kicked out with Maria by a frustrated and angry Tyrone. Kirk attends Peter Barlow’s (Chris Gascoyne) wedding renewal to Leanne Battersby (Jane Dawson) he arrives with Maria and her boyfriend Chris Gray (Will Thorp) he informs Peter that everyone has arrived and that they can start the ceremony. Kirk, Tyrone, Gary and Tommy abduct Leon Southam, whose girlfriend is harassing Fiz in prison. They hold him hostage in the butcher’s and figure out how they will get out of it, only for Norris to find Leon and citizen arrests him. Leon is sent back to jail for violating his parole and Norris is hailed as a hero, only for his 15 minutes to expire immediately when a drunken Carla crashes into the bookies and almost kills Stella Price (Michelle Collins).
July, Kirk is put in charge of helping work colleague Michelle’s son Ryan Connor (Sol Heras) in the packing department at Underworld as Michelle is punishing Ryan for an incident involving setting fire to Steve McDonald’s (Simon Gregson) house. While left alone, Ryan takes advantage and fakes a severe injury in order to take time off. Michelle and Rob Donovan (Marc Baylis) take Ryan to hospital, but no injuries are shown. However, later, Ryan announces that he plans to sue Underworld. Months later, Kirk meets Beth Tinker (Lisa George) and begins a relationship with her.
Whyment resigned from Coronation Street in September 2003, in order to appear in the latest addition to the Carry On series – Carry On London. However, after the film’s scripts were delayed

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, and amidst rumours that it would perform poorly, Whyment pulled out and returned to Coronation Street in a £60,000 deal.
In 2012, Whyment said that he was committed to staying with Coronation Street. As he was in his eleventh year of playing the role and it remained “great”; he hoped it would be “a job for life”.
In 2013, it was announced that Kirk would start a romance with Beth Tinker (Lisa George). Their relationship begins when Kirk rescues Beth from a date who becomes aggressive with her. Talking about the romance, Lisa George said “Usually the viewers only see Beth as the really gobby person in the factory. But there are some really nice, tender little moments in this storyline, and Beth is quite open and honest with Kirk. I think it’s really nice that the audience will get to see that.”
For his portrayal of Kirk, Whyment was awarded “Best Comedy Performance” at the 2003 British Soap Awards. He won the award for the funniest character at 2004 Inside Soap Awards. Laura Morgan of All About Soap that she “simply could not imagine” Coronation Street with without Kirk and his “gormless grin”. In 2004, Ian Hyland of the Sunday Mirror questioned whether there was a “better comic actor in Britain today than Andrew Whyment”.

Completely regular semigroup

In mathematics, a completely regular semigroup is a semigroup in which every element is in some subgroup of the semigroup. The class of completely regular semigroups forms an important subclass of the class of regular semigroups, the class of inverse semigroups being another such subclass. A H Clifford was the first to publish a major paper on completely regular semigroups though he used the terminology “semigroups admitting relative inverses” to refer to such semigroups. The name “completely regular semigroup” stems from Lyapin’s book on semigroups. In the Russian literature

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, completely regular semigroups are often called “Clifford semigroups”. In the English literature, the name “Clifford semigroup” is used synonymously to “inverse Clifford semigroup”, and refers to a completely regular inverse semigroup. In a completely regular semigroup, each Green H-class is a group and the semigroup is the union of these groups

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. Hence completely regular semigroups are also referred to as “unions of groups”. Epigroups generalize this notion and their class includes all completely regular semigroups

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“While there is an abundance of natural examples of inverse semigroups

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, for completely regular semigroups the examples (beyond completely simple semigroups) are mostly artificially constructed: the minimum ideal of a finite semigroup is completely simple, and the various relatively free completely regular semigroups are the other more or less natural examples.”

Turnpike trusts in Greater Manchester

Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom during the 18th and 19th centuries. The trusts had powers to collect road tolls for the maintenance of principal highways. The length of turnpike roads within what is now Greater Manchester varied considerably, from the 0.5 miles (0.80 km) Little Lever Trust, to the 22 miles (35 km) Manchester to Saltersbrook Trust.
Turnpikes contributed significantly to England’s economic development before and during the Industrial Revolution. Although the trusts were abolished in the late-19th century, the roads themselves broadly remain as modern routes, and some of the original toll houses and roadside milestones have survived.
The metropolitan county of Greater Manchester was created in 1974 and so the turnpike trusts predate its existence. Greater Manchester lies at the conjunction of the historic county boundaries of Cheshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Yorkshire; many trusts operated roads which crossed those ancient county boundaries. The list below is divided according to historic county, with the first part of the name of each trust determining which table it appears in.

Method of construction and the design of the road surface varied. Before construction of its road, the Bury, Blackburn and Whalley Trust engaged “skilled persons” as temporary surveyors, to make a survey of the districts through which the road would pass. It then advertised for tenders for construction of varied parts of the roads, with contractors responsible for building their respective portions, under the supervision of permanent surveyors. The trust bought limestone for the road surface largely from limestone quarries in Clitheroe

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, Liverpool, and Wigan, due to heavy coal traffic it was necessary to lay pavements of large stones along the roads. Suitable material would, if not found in the vicinity, be imported from the coasts of Wales and Scotland. Normally the pavement ran down the middle of the road, with a gravelled way on either side. An exception was along Bury New Road (built in 1826), where the middle track was 4 yards (3.7 m) of gravel, with stone pavements 3 yards (2.7 m) outside it. Such pavements were expensive, and unpopular with travellers who regularly described their discomfort travelling upon them.
Toll rates varied across the region, but preferential rates were often available to local residents, and for particular kinds of local traffic. The 1819 Act of the Crossford Bridge and Manchester Trust allowed it to charge half tolls on the inhabitants and occupiers of Trafford House, Old Trafford, and Stretford Moss. The Bolton and Westhoughton Trust allowed farmers from Rumworth and Westhoughton to use the roads free of charge, when taking horses and carts laden with produce from their own farms to Bolton Market. Carriage of coal was often charged at half the normal rate, and no tolls were payable by persons travelling on foot. Other road users who were entitled to free passage included posthorses, carriage of ordnance and military stores, and cattle going to pasture.
Turnpike roads had a huge impact on the nature of business transport around Manchester

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. Packhorses were superseded by waggons

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, and merchants would no longer accompany their caravans to markets and fairs, instead sending agents with samples, and despatching the goods at a later date. In 1804 it was said that Manchester employed more than 120 “land carriers”.
The railway era spelt disaster for most turnpike trusts. Although some trusts in districts not served by railways managed to increase revenue, most did not. In 1829, the year before the Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened, the Warrington and Lower Irlam Trust had receipts of £1,680, but by 1834 this had fallen to £332. The Bolton and Blackburn Trust had an income of £3,998 in 1846, but in 1847 following the completion of a railway between the two towns this had fallen to £3,077, and in 1849 £1,185.
The end of the turnpike system created serious problems for the local parishes and highway district boards upon whom the burden of maintenance fell. The Local Government Act 1888 made the repair of all main roads the responsibility of the new County Councils. Lancashire County Council determined that any road leading to a town with a population of 25,000 or more would become a main road, which included almost all of the old turnpike roads in the region.
An 1814 map of Lancashire by John Cary which shows many of the Turnpike roads.
The Grade II listed Kersal Bar Toll House, along the Manchester and Bury New Road Turnpike road.
A milestone along the Warrington and Lower Irlam Turnpike road, near Rixton. The opposite side gives the distance to Warrington.
A milestone on Patricroft Bridge, along the Barton and Moses Gate Turnpike road, near Eccles. Note the older spelling of ‘Altringham’ – latterly Altrincham.
A milestone along the Manchester to Wilmslow Turnpike road, in Withington
This milestone, part of the Smut Inn public house, indicates the distance between Oldham and Manchester Town Hall.