Survivor Series (2015)

Survivor Series (2015) was a professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by WWE. It took place on November 22, 2015 at Philips Arena in Atlanta, Georgia, the first time the state has hosted the event. The 29th event under the Survivor Series chronology, it celebrated The Undertaker’s 25th anniversary in WWE, his debut occurring on the 1990’s Survivor Series.

Nine matches were contested at the event, including one match on the pre-show. In the main event, Roman Reigns defeated Dean Ambrose to win the vacant WWE World Heavyweight Championship; however, Sheamus cashed in his Money in the Bank contract and defeated Reigns to win the title.

The professional wrestling matches at Survivor Series featured professional wrestlers performing as characters in scripted events pre-determined by the hosting promotion, WWE. Storylines between the characters played out on WWE’s primary television programs, Raw and SmackDown.

After Seth Rollins retained the WWE World Heavyweight Championship at Hell in a Cell, a #1 contender was determined the next night on Raw. Eight wrestlers that were victorious at Hell in a Cell competed in singles matches, with the winners advancing to a Fatal 4-Way match. Roman Reigns emerged victorious and was named the #1 contender. However, on November 4, Rollins suffered multiple knee injuries at a live event in Dublin, Ireland; therefore, the title vacated and a tournament set up to crown a new champion. The tournament began on the November 9 episode of Raw, with the semifinals and the final match scheduled for Survivor Series. Since Roman Reigns was already the #1 contender, Triple H offered him to pass directly into the finals if he would join The Authority. Reigns refused, preferring to go through the tournament. On the November 16 episode of Raw, Reigns, Dean Ambrose, Intercontinental Champion Kevin Owens and United States Champion Alberto Del Rio advanced to the semifinals with victories over Cesaro, Dolph Ziggler, Neville and Kalisto respectively, setting up Reigns vs. Del Rio and Ambrose vs. Owens in the semifinals at the event.

On the November 2 episode of Raw thermos vacuum insulated 24 ounce, Paige defeated Becky Lynch, Brie Bella and Sasha Banks in a Fatal 4-Way match to earn a Divas Championship match against Charlotte at Survivor Series.

At Hell in a Cell, The Wyatt Family attacked The Undertaker after he had lost to Brock Lesnar in a Hell in a Cell match and carried him out of the arena. The following night on Raw, Undertaker’s brother Kane confronted The Wyatt Family but was also overpowered and carried out. On the November 9 episode of Raw, The Undertaker and Kane returned and attacked The Wyatt Family. On the November 12 episode of SmackDown, Bray Wyatt challenged the brothers to a tag team match at Survivor Series against two handpicked members of The Wyatt Family, which they accepted.

On the October 22 episode of SmackDown water canteen, Tyler Breeze made his WWE debut and attacked Dolph Ziggler. On the October 29 episode of SmackDown, after Ziggler defeated The Miz, Breeze attacked Ziggler. On the November 2 episode of Raw, Breeze distracted Ziggler during a match with Kevin Owens, allowing Owens to get the victory. On the November 19 episode of SmackDown, after Breeze defeated Zack Ryder, Ziggler attacked Breeze. Later in the show, a match between Ziggler and Breeze was scheduled for the event.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated an alleged threat by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) at the event. On November 21, 2015, the FBI released the statement, “The FBI is aware of reports of an alleged threat that includes an Atlanta, Georgia venue and event. While we take all threats seriously, we do not have specific or credible information of an attack at this time. We have, however, made the proper notifications as we continue to work closely with our law enforcement and private sector partners to keep our community safe.” International Business Times reported that the hacker group Anonymous were responsible for uncovering the information. WWE released a statement stating that the show would go on as scheduled. The show went on with no attack from ISIS.

During the pre-show, The Dudley Boyz (Bubba Ray Dudley and D-Von Dudley), Goldust, Neville, and Titus O’Neil faced The Cosmic Wasteland (Stardust, Konnor, and Viktor), The Miz, and Bo Dallas in a Survivor Series elimination tag team match. Viktor was eliminated by Goldust after a snap scoop powerslam. Konnor was eliminated by Bubba Ray after a side slam. Neville was eliminated by The Miz after a Bo-Dog by Dallas, followed by a Skull Crushing Finale by The Miz. The Miz was eliminated by Goldust with a schoolboy pin. Dallas was eliminated by O’Neil after a Clash of the Titus. Stardust was eliminated by D-Von after a 3-D by the Dudleyz, leaving Goldust, The Dudleyz and Titus O’Neil as the survivors.

The actual pay-per-view opened with the semifinals in the tournament for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship. In the first semifinal, Roman Reigns faced United States Champion Alberto Del Rio (with Zeb Colter). In the end, Del Rio leapt off the top rope but Reigns avoided Del Rio and executed a Spear on Del Rio to win the match and advance to the finals.

Next, Dean Ambrose and Intercontinental Champion Kevin Owens competed in the second semifinal match. The match ended when Owens attempted a Pop Up Powerbomb but Ambrose countered the move with a Hurricanrana and executed Dirty Deeds on Owens to win the match and advance to the finals.

After that, Tag Team Champions The New Day (Big E, Kofi Kingston, and Xavier Woods), Sheamus and King Barrett faced The Usos (Jimmy Uso and Jey Uso), The Lucha Dragons (Kalisto and Sin Cara) and Ryback in a Survivor Series Elimination Tag Team match. Barrett was eliminated by Sin Cara after a Springboard Senton Bomb. Jimmy Uso was eliminated by Xavier Woods after a Backbreaker/Diving Double Foot Stomp combination with Kingston. Sin Cara was eliminated by Sheamus after a Brogue Kick. Big E was eliminated by Jey Uso after a Samoan Splash. After Big E was eliminated, Kingston and Woods left with Big E, eliminating Kingston and Woods. In the end, Sheamus received a Superkick from Jey Uso, a Hurricanrana from Kalisto and was eliminated by Ryback after Shellshocked, leaving Ryback, Kalisto and Jey as the survivors.

In the fourth match, Charlotte defended the WWE Divas Championship against Paige. During the match, Charlotte executed a Natural Selection on Paige, causing Paige to roll outside the ring. Paige climbed onto the barricade and taunted Charlotte, who also climbed up and executed a Spear on Paige. Charlotte, with her arms under the bottom rope, forced Paige to submit to the Figure Eight Leglock to retain.

In the fifth match, Tyler Breeze faced Dolph Ziggler. Breeze executed an Unprettier on Ziggler to win the match.

In the sixth match

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, The Brothers of Destruction (The Undertaker and Kane) fought Bray Wyatt and Luke Harper of The Wyatt Family, with Erick Rowan and Braun Strowman at ringside. Before the match, Undertaker and Kane performed a Double Chokeslam on Rowan. During the match, Undertaker and Kane performed a double Chokeslam on Strowman through a broadcast table. In the climax, Wyatt performed a Spider Walk but the Undertaker and Kane sat up simultaneously. Undertaker and Kane performed a Double Chokeslam on Wyatt and Harper before Undertaker pinned Harper after a Tombstone Piledriver to win the match.

In the main event, Roman Reigns and Dean Ambrose fought in the tournament final for the vacant WWE World Heavyweight Championship. During the match, Ambrose leapt off the top rope but was intercepted by Reigns with a Superman Punch for a near-fall. Reigns performed a Spear on Ambrose for a near-fall. When Reigns attempted another Spear, Ambrose shoved him into the ring post and rolled him up for a near-fall. Ambrose executed Dirty Deeds on Reigns for a near-fall. Reigns performed another Spear on Ambrose to win the championship.

After the match, Triple H came in the ring to congratulate Reigns. Triple H offered Reigns a handshake but Reigns attacked him with a Spear. Sheamus surprised Reigns with a Brogue Kick and cashed in his Money in the Bank contract. After Reigns kicked out of a pinfall attempt, Sheamus executed another Brogue Kick on Reigns to win the championship.

The entire event and also “particularly the event’s finish, was widely met with negative reviews and utter disappointment from observers”, as described by Adam Silverstein of CBSSports.com. This was due to “mundane matches that failed to captivate the audience” and “replicated a clunky finish from a pay-per-view just one year earlier”, resulting in “a new World Heavyweight Champion in Sheamus that no one desires to see as part of the main event picture”. Silverstein highlighted the negative reaction of former WWE Champion Mick Foley, who was “on the verge of becoming a former WWE fan” after seeing how “WWE has completely failed to capitalize not only on the male wrestlers drawing positive reactions from the crowd” like “Ziggler to Cesaro to Kevin Owens”, but also the “female performers who are promoted well on the company’s NXT developmental show but hardly given any time to ‘get over'” on the WWE main roster.

Aaron Oster of Rolling Stone declared that Survivor Series was “a night that started with much promise, but ended in disappointment”. While the event was not “awful” due to an “phenomenal” entrance for the Undertaker on his 25th anniversary and three “solid” matches: the tournament semi-finals and the traditional Survivor Series tag match, “the main event … never connected and concluded in a way that cast a pall over the rest of the show – and quite possibly the company, too.” This was because “Sheamus cannot be the guy at the top of your card every night … When a bad guy’s biggest heel quality is his facial hair, it doesn’t bode well.” Also, it was “hard to buy” Roman Reigns as “a plucky underdog being screwed over by the Authority”, when leading into the event Reigns “still seemed like Vince McMahon’s handpicked guy”. For other topics, Oster said the “whole night was a tribute to the Undertaker”, who revived the “dead” crowd. Tyler Breeze’s character was enhanced by using the Unprettier move, while Dolph Ziggler, in copying Shawn Michaels’ dressing and mannerisms, “just needs to figure out who he is, and quickly.” Lastly, Oster questioned, “If they are going to go completely random with the Survivor Series matches, are they really worth having?”

James Cadwell of Pro Wrestling Torch rated the Del Rio-Reigns semi-final three-and-a-half stars out of five, “really good” in spite of the “outcome was never in doubt, removing some of the drama”. The Ambrose-Owens semi-final was rated three-and-a-quarter stars, due to both wrestlers being “really good in the ring and they had strong chemistry building to the finish”. For the women’s match, Caldwell wrote that it “didn’t generate enough of a reaction for a supposed grudge match”, and that “it’s so difficult for Charlotte’s character, like Reigns, to get sympathy in the babyface role when she towers over everyone and carries herself like she’s arrived”. The Undertaker participated in a “fine nostalgic match” that would be “satisfying” for fans of his, but for others an “exhibition match victory over heels who were defined-down as henchmen”. The tournament final was too short to be rated over two-and-three-quarters stars, where “WWE was just not going to waver from the plan to have Reigns win” despite Ambrose enjoying a more favorable reaction. Lastly, Caldwell wrote that “Lame Sheamus as champ” was “foreshadowed … earlier in the show by having Sheamus act like an idiot so ‘they’ll never see it coming!'”

John Powell of Canadian Online Explorer wrote that Survivor Series was “one of, if not the, worst WWE pay-per-view of 2015″. It “exposed all of the WWE’s weaknesses” and “epitomized the existing WWE product. It is musty, tedious and worst of all, predictable.” Powell singled out three main areas for criticism. Firstly, a “slipshod, bumbling interview” involving Dean Ambrose and a “rambling” Roman Reigns. Secondly, WWE keeping “fans in the dark” after “Network streaming issues”. Thirdly, “questionable booking”: the world champion heading out of the PPV was earlier “portrayed as an out-of-step idiot, easily pinned and losing the match for his team after being abandoned by The New Day”; “claiming to have a ‘Divas Revolution’ then pushing nobody but Paige, The Bellas and Charlotte”; the tournament final being a “mediocre rush job” at 9 minutes while the traditional Survivor Series match which was unhyped and had unannounced participants was given almost 20 minutes.

Will Pruett of Pro Wrestling Dot Net wrote that “WWE produced an evening filled with flaws, ranging from giant to minor” resulting in a “broken universe”. “The largest logical fallacy of Survivor Series was assuming anything being done on this show was being done for any reason other than ‘it’ll shock everyone’ or ‘that’s how we’ve always done it’.” Commenting on individual wrestlers, Pruett said that Roman Reigns, the ‘supposed sympathetic star’, ‘lost all sympathy’ by attacking Triple H, who “hadn’t been very evil when it came to Reigns”; “Alberto Del Rio has been noticeably disconnected in his matches since his return last month”; and Sheamus “could be a legitimate WWE Champion at some point”, but “WWE seems to abuse his character.” Lastly, Pruett felt that the Undertaker’s entrance and match was “a life raft of heartfelt joy”, “in the sea of negativity and sadness WWE lead me to” at the event.

The post-Survivor Series Raw was the lowest rated non-holiday episode since 1997 and the first time Raw averaged less than three million viewers since then. On that episode, Roman Reigns confronted The Authority and demanded a rematch against Sheamus for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship that night. Triple H scheduled a rematch for TLC: Tables, Ladders & Chairs in a Tables, Ladders, and Chairs match before leaving Reigns to face Rusev that night, which Reigns won by disqualification after King Barrett interfered. On the November 30 episode of Raw, Reigns attacked Sheamus during his WWE World Heavyweight Championship celebrations before taking the belt with him. This prompted Sheamus to give Reigns a title match for the WWE World Heavyweight Championship that night, but with the stipulation that Reigns must beat him in 5:15 (the amount of time that Reigns’ short-lived title reign lasted) in order to win the title. Reigns defeated Sheamus by disqualification after Rusev interfered, which prevented Reigns from winning the title. After the match, Sheamus was helped by Rusev, King Barrett and Alberto Del Rio, and introduced themselves as The League of Nations.

On the November 26 episode of SmackDown, Dean Ambrose won a Triple Threat match against Dolph Ziggler and Tyler Breeze to become the No. 1 contender to Kevin Owens’ Intercontinental Championship.

On the November 23 episode of Raw, to celebrate one year as a tag team, The New Day decided to do an open challenge to anyone who wants to have a shot at winning their WWE Tag Team Championship, but when The Lucha Dragons and The Usos got involved, they decided to cancel the challenge. On the November 30 episode of Raw, the match to determine the #1 contender between The Usos and The Lucha Dragons ended in a double disqualification after The New Day interfered. The Authority decided to make the WWE Tag Team Championship match a Triple Threat Tag Team Ladder match in which The Lucha Dragons were immediately inserted, but that The Usos would only participate if Roman Reigns defeated Sheamus that night. As Reigns won by disqualification, The Usos were inserted into the title match.

On the November 23 episode of Raw, The Wyatt Family defeated The Dudley Boyz before repeatedly attacking them. On the November 26 episode of SmackDown, The Dudley Boyz defeated The Wyatt Family (Braun Strowman and Erick Rowan) by disqualification after Wyatt Family member Luke Harper interfered in the match. Afterwards, The Wyatt Family put Bubba Ray Dudley through a table. On the November 30 episode of Raw, The Dudley Boyz introduced Tommy Dreamer, making his return to WWE in over 5 years, to join them in their ongoing fight against The Wyatt Family.

After failing to beat Charlotte for the WWE Divas Championship at the event, Paige accused her of cheating similar to that of her father Ric Flair on the November 23 episode of Raw. The two faced each other that night in a rematch for the WWE Divas Championship which ended in a double count-out after Paige failed to get back in the ring in time after preventing Charlotte from getting back in first. After the match, Paige continued to attack Charlotte which ended with Paige trapping Charlotte in the PTO on top of the broadcast table. On the November 30 episode of Raw, Charlotte defeated her friend Becky Lynch after she faked a leg injury and her father distracted Lynch to allow her to roll Lynch for the win. Their friendship was further strained on the December 3 episode of SmackDown, when Charlotte attacked Lynch’s opponent Brie Bella while locked in the Dis-arm-her after Bella hit her by accident, giving Bella a disqualification win.

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Jurassic Park (arcade game)

Jurassic Park is a rail shooter arcade game developed and released by Sega in 1994. It is based on the 1993 film of the same name. The game cabinet resembles the rear of the Ford Explorer tour vehicles used in the film. The player, equipped with a joystick, must shoot dinosaurs that appear on-screen throughout the game.

The game is notable for having a moving seat, also used in Sega’s previous 1991 light gun shooter Rail Chase. The seat is powered by hydraulic pistons to move the seat according to action on the screen. The game’s graphics blend two-dimensional sprites and three-dimensional polygons to give the sense of movement. Jurassic Park was the first game of this genre to include 3D environments.

The game was followed by two arcade sequels, The Lost World: Jurassic Park in 1997, and Jurassic Park III in 2001 soccer goalie outfits. Another arcade game black and football socks, titled Jurassic Park Arcade, was released in 2015 and is based on the first three films in the Jurassic Park series.

The game takes place on Isla Nublar a few months after the events of the film. Similar to Operation Wolf, the player fends off a vehicle from dinosaur attacks with automatic weaponry. A joystick is used to play, rather than a light gun. Dinosaurs include Tyrannosaurus rex, Velociraptor, Dilophosaurus, Gallimimus, Brachiosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Triceratops, Ichthyosaurus, and Pteranodon.

Fences and large rocks that block the player’s path must be shot at to avoid running into them. The game ends with the dinosaurs being caged once again cheap metal water bottles.

Edge called the game a “shameful Line of Fire/Rail Chase-style shoot ’em up,” concluding that it was conair shaver, “Very disappointing.”

François Girardon

François Girardon (10 March 1628 – 1 September 1715) was a French sculptor.

He was born at Troyes. As a boy, he had for master a joiner and wood-carver of his native town, named Baudesson, under whom he is said to have worked at the chateau of Liebault, where he attracted the notice of Chancellor Séguier. By the chancellor’s influence, Girardon was first removed to Paris and placed in the studio of François Anguier, and afterwards sent to Rome.

In 1652, he was back in France and seems at once to have addressed himself with something like ignoble subserviency to the task of conciliating the court painter, Charles Le Brun. Girardon is reported to have declared himself incapable of composing a group, whether with truth or from motives of policy it is impossible to say. This much is certain, that a very large proportion of his work was carried out from designs by Le Brun, and shows the merits and defects of Le Brun’s manner – a great command of ceremonial pomp in presenting his subject, coupled with a large treatment of forms which if it were more expressive might be imposing.

The court which Girardon paid to the “premier peintre du roi” was rewarded. An immense quantity of work at Versailles was entrusted to him, and in recognition of the successful execution of four figures for the Bains d’Apollon, Le Brun induced the king to present his protégé personally with a purse of 300 louis, as a distinguishing mark of royal favour. In 1657, Girardon was admitted as a member of the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, in 1659, he was made “professeur”, in 1674, “adjoint à recteur,” and finally, in 1695, “chancelier”. Five years before (1690), on the death of Le Brun, he had also been appointed “inspecteur general des ouvrages de sculpture” – a place of power and profit.

In 1699, he completed the bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV, erected by the town of Paris on the Place Louis le Grand (now Place Vendôme). This statue was melted down during the French Revolution and is now known only by a small bronze model (Louvre) finished by Girardon himself. His Tomb of Richelieu (church of the Sorbonne) was saved from destruction by Alexandre Lenoir, who received a bayonet thrust in protecting the head of the cardinal from mutilation. It is a capital example of Girardon’s work, and the theatrical pomp of its style is typical of the funeral sculpture of the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV; but amongst other important specimens yet remaining may also be cited the Tomb of Louvois (St Eustache), that of Bignon, the king’s librarian, executed in 1656 (St Nicolas du Chardonneret), and decorative sculptures in the Galerie d’Apollon and Chambre du roi in the Louvre.

Mention should not be omitted of the group, signed and dated 1699, “The Rape of Proserpine” at Versailles, which also contains the “Bull of Apollo aluminium drink bottle.” Although chiefly occupied at Paris Girardon never forgot his native Troyes fuel belt water bottle, the museum of which town contains some of his best works, including the marble busts of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. In the hôtel de ville is still shown a medallion of Louis XIV, and in the church of St Remy a bronze crucifix of some importance—both works by his hand. He died in Paris in 1715.

See Corrard de Breban, Notice sur la vie et les œuvres de Girardon (1850).

Feletheus

Feletheus (auch Feva, Feba, Foeba, Fevva, Fevvanus, Theuvanus; † 487 in Ravenna) war König der Rugier von 475 bis 487.

Feletheus war der Sohn des Königs Flaccitheus und Bruder des Ferderuchus.

Feletheus heiratete die als grausam beschriebene Gotin Giso (auch Gisa), möglicherweise eine amalische Cousine von Theoderich dem Großen, was das Bündnis mit den Ostgoten einleitete. Mit ihr hatte er den Sohn Fredericus.

Nach dem Tod seines Vaters nahm Feletheus wahrscheinlich 475 den Titel rugorum rex (König der Rugier) an. Rugiland, sein Herrschaftsbereich, erstreckte sich nördlich der Donau von Favianis (Mautern an der Donau) bis Boiodurum (bei Passau). Er teilte die Macht mit seinem Bruder Ferderuchus der im Osten die Gegend um Favianis beherrschte olet toothpaste dispenser.

476 unterstützten rugische Krieger die Heruler und Skiren unter Odoaker beim Sturz des letzten weströmischen Kaisers. In den Augen römischer Beobachter galt Odoakar daher als herulischer oder rugischer König. Das „rugische Regnum“ fungierte daraufhin als einigermaßen berechenbare Schutzmacht über Norikum Ripense etwa zwischen Wienerwald und Enns.

Severin von Noricum, der schon seinem Vater beratend zur Seite stand, ermahnte ihn oft von seinen Freveln Abstand zu nehmen. Dennoch hatte der Arianer Feletheus ein gutes Verhältnis zu dem katholischen Abt, den er schon von Jugend an kannte und oftmals besuchte. Im Gegensatz dazu war Königin Giso eine überzeugte Arianerin, die Katholiken bekehrte und der Severin feindselig gegenüberstand. Als einige „barbarische“ Goldschmiede, die gefangengehalten wurden um für Feletheus und Giso Schmuck anzufertigen, Fredericus, den Sohn der Königin fingen um ihre Freilassung zu erzwingen, empfand Giso das als Strafe für ihr Verhalten gegen Severin.

Wegen der Bedrohung von Lauriacum durch Thüringer und Alamannen nahm Feletheus die bedeutende Stadt, in der sich zahlreiche Flüchtlinge aufhielten, schließlich (vor 482) selbst ein. Feletheus wollte die romanische Bevölkerung evakuieren und in ihm tributspflichtigen Orten ansiedeln. Severin trat ihm entgegen und bat darum, ihm den Schutz der “Verschleppten” zu übertragen, was der König ihm zugestand.

Als die Rugier vom oströmischen Kaiser Zenon zum Kampf gegen Odoaker angestiftet wurden, kam es zum Konflikt zwischen Feletheus und seinem Bruder Ferderuchus. Da letzterer Odoakar unterstützte, wurde er um 486/487 durch seinen Neffen Fredericus getötet. Odoaker kam daraufhin selbst einem möglichen Angriff von dieser Seite zuvor und schlug ein rugisches Heer in der Nähe des Wienerwaldes best hydration pack running. Das Reich der Rugier wurde cotton soccer socks, trotz Unterstützung durch die römischen Provinzialen, 487/488 in zwei Kriegen durch Odoaker zerstört. Feletheus und seine Frau wurden gefangen genommen und in Ravenna 487 hingerichtet.

Washington and Old Dominion Railroad

The Washington and Old Dominion Railroad (colloquially referred to as the W&OD), the successor to the bankrupt Washington and Old Dominion Railway, was an intrastate short-line railroad located in Northern Virginia. Its oldest line extended from Alexandria on the Potomac River northwest to Bluemont at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains near Snickers Gap, not far from the boundary line between Virginia and West Virginia. The railroad’s route largely paralleled the routes of the Potomac River and the present Virginia State Route 7 (VA Route 7).

The line followed the winding course of Four Mile Run upstream from Alexandria through Arlington to Falls Church. At that point, the railroad was above the fall line and was able to follow a more direct northwesterly course in Virginia through Dunn Loring, Vienna, Sunset Hills (now in Reston), Herndon, Sterling, Ashburn, Leesburg, Paeonian Springs, Hamilton, Purcellville and Round Hill to its terminus at Bluemont, turning sharply to the west only after passing through Clarks Gap in Catoctin Mountain west of Leesburg. A branch connected the line to Rosslyn. The Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Trail (W&OD Trail), the Bluemont Junction Trail and several other trails have replaced much of the railroad’s route.

Originally incorporated as the Alexandria and Harper’s Ferry Railroad, construction on the line began in 1855 by the Alexandria, Loudoun and Hampshire (AL&H) Railroad under the presidency of Lewis McKenzie First intended to cross the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Shenandoah River to reach the coal fields in the western part of Hampshire County, Virginia, that are now within Mineral County, West Virginia, the AL&H began operating to Vienna in 1859 from a terminal station near Princess and Fairfax Streets in old town Alexandria. In 1860, the AL&H reached Leesburg in Loudoun County. Because of its proximity to Washington, D.C., the line saw much use and disruption during the Civil War. After the war, the name of the line was changed in 1870 to the Washington and Ohio Railroad. The line was extended from Leesburg to Hamilton in 1870 and to Round Hill in 1874.

Upon acquisition by new owners in the 1880s, the line’s name was changed twice: first to the Washington and Western Railroad in 1882 and in the next year to the Washington, Ohio and Western (WO&W) Railroad. However, the line’s trains did not serve either Washington, Ohio, or the West.

In 1886, the Richmond and Danville Railroad, whose trunk line travelled between Washington, D.C., and Atlanta with connections to New York City, New Orleans, Mississippi and Florida, leased the WO&W. The Richmond and Danville also acquired a branch that paralleled the WO&W while traveling between Manassas and Strasburg, Virginia, where it connected to railroads in the Shenandoah Valley west of the Blue Ridge that the WO&W did not reach (see: Manassas Gap Railroad). In 1888, the Richmond and Danville began to operate the WO&W’s trains between Washington, D.C., and Round Hill.

In 1894, the newly formed Southern Railway absorbed the Richmond and Danville Railroad and acquired the WO&W. In 1900 trusox soccer socks, the Southern Railway extended the line westward for four miles from Round Hill to Bluemont (formerly Snickersville). The Southern Railway designated the line as its Bluemont Branch.

By 1908, steam locomotives were hauling Southern Railway passenger trains from the new Union Station in Washington, D.C., to Alexandria Junction (north of old town Alexandria), where they switched to travel westward on the Bluemont Branch. Connecting trains shuttled passengers between Alexandria Junction and the former AL&H terminal in old town Alexandria. On weekends, express trains carried vacationers from Washington to Bluemont and other towns in western Loudoun County in which resorts had developed.

Meanwhile, in 1906, electric trolleys had begun to run on the Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad (GF&OD) northwest to Great Falls from Georgetown in Washington, D.C. This line, which John Roll McLean and Stephen Benton Elkins owned at the time, crossed the Potomac River on the old Aqueduct Bridge, passed through Rosslyn, and traveled northwest on a double-tracked line through Arlington and Fairfax County to an amusement park (trolley park) that the railway constructed and operated near the Falls.

Richmond & Danville Railroad system map, 1891

Richmond & Danville Railroad system map, 1893

Southern Railway system map, 1895

In 1911, McLean and Elkins formed a new corporation, the Washington and Old Dominion Railway. In that year, they concluded negotiations with the Southern Railway to lease the Southern’s Bluemont Branch and to take over all service on the branch on July 1, 1912. The lease excluded the portion of the Southern’s route that connected Potomac Yard with the former AL&H terminal in old town Alexandria.

In 1912, the GF&OD became the “Great Falls Division” of the W&OD Railway, while the Southern’s Bluemont Branch became a part of the W&OD Railway’s “Bluemont Division”. The W&OD electrified all of its operations over the next four years, becoming an interurban electric trolley system that carried passengers, mail, milk and freight. From that time onward, W&OD trains crossed over Potomac Yard on a long trestle constructed earlier for the Southern Railway. In contrast to the Southern Railway’s earlier Bluemont Branch service, the W&OD Railway’s Bluemont Division did not serve Washington’s Union Station.

To join its two lines, the W&OD Railway constructed in 1912 a double-tracked Bluemont Division connecting line that traveled between two new junctions in Arlington: Bluemont Junction on the Alexandria-Bluemont line and Thrifton Junction on the Georgetown-Great Falls line. The connecting line passed through Lacey (near the west end of Ballston), crossing on a through girder bridge over a competing interurban electric trolley line, the Fairfax line of the Washington-Virginia Railway (see Northern Virginia trolleys). The rival line carried passengers between Rosslyn, Clarendon, Ballston, Falls Church, Vienna and Fairfax City.

The railway’s electrification system distributed 650 volts direct current (DC) to its Bluemont Division cars and trains through overhead catenary lines. Single overhead lines carried the Great Falls Division’s electricity over its tracks. Stationary and movable electrical substations containing Westinghouse alternating current (AC) to DC converters were located at various points along the railway’s routes.

The W&OD’s main passenger line ran from Georgetown and Rosslyn through Thrifton Junction, Bluemont Junction and westward to Bluemont. However, after crossing the Potomac River from Georgetown, many W&OD passengers transferred in Rosslyn to the trolleys of the competing Washington-Virginia Railway. Most of the W&OD’s freight trains ran between Potomac Yard, Bluemont Junction and either Rosslyn or various locations along the Bluemont Division.

In 1923, the W&OD Railway ceased operating from Georgetown when the federal government replaced the aging Aqueduct Bridge with the new Francis Scott Key Bridge. At the same time, the railroad constructed a new passenger station in Rosslyn which became its “Washington” terminal.

The W&OD Railway fell upon hard times in the 1930s during the Great Depression. In 1932, the railway went into bankruptcy and was placed in receivership. In 1934, the railway abandoned operations on the Great Falls Division between Thrifton Junction and Great Falls. The abandoned railway route then became Old Dominion Drive.

In 1936, the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad, a new corporation that Davis Elkins (the son of Stephen Benton Elkins) had created, assumed operation of the remnants of the W&OD Railway, which consisted only of the Railway’s Bluemont Division and the portion of the former Great Falls Division that had remained between Rosslyn and Thrifton (which was no longer a junction). Shortly thereafter, in 1939, the railroad abandoned the western end of its line, which had connected the towns of Purcellville and Bluemont.

In 1945, the W&OD Railroad acquired ownership of the section of line between Potomac Yard and Purcellville that the W&OD Railway had earlier leased from the Southern Railway. The Southern Railway retained ownership of the easternmost section of the railroad’s route, which still connected Potomac Yard to the Southern’s freight and passenger stations in old town Alexandria.

During the 1940s remington shaver india, the W&OD Railroad converted all of its lines’ operations from electric to diesel or gasoline power. During that decade, the railroad discontinued its electrified passenger service in 1941, but temporarily resumed passenger service during the Second World War using gas-electric motor cars and cars pulled by diesel-electric locomotives. Passenger and mail service finally ended in 1951; thereafter, the railroad carried only freight.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) purchased the W&OD Railroad in 1956, but did not change the railroad’s name. In 1963, the C&O abandoned the segment of its line that traveled between Rosslyn, Thrifton and Lacey. The Virginia Department of Highways then purchased this segment to acquire a right-of-way for the planned route of Interstate 66 (I-66).

Five years later, in 1968, the railroad, which by that time operated only between Potomac Yard and Purcellville, ceased operations. Shortly thereafter, the C&O sold the railroad’s route to the Virginia Department of Highways. The Highway Department then sold most of the route to the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) (now Dominion Virginia Power), whose transmission lines had run along the railroad’s right-of-way. The Highway Department retained a portion of the route in Arlington immediately east of Falls Church, on which it built I-66, and the section of the route which crossed the Henry G. Shirley Memorial Highway (presently part of Interstate 395 (I-395)) along the Arlington-Alexandria boundary.

Most of the Bluemont Division’s passenger cars or trains ran on the W&OD Railway’s Great Falls Division’s line from Georgetown over the Aqueduct Bridge through Rosslyn to Thrifton Junction. From Thrifton Junction, the trains ran on the Bluemont Division’s connecting line to Bluemont Junction, where they met other Bluemont Division passenger cars or trains that ran from Alexandria, following Four Mile Run in Arlington. Some of the Bluemont Division cars or trains then continued their trips through Falls Church, Vienna, Herndon, Sterling, Ashburn, Leesburg, Clarkes Gap and Purcellville to terminate in Bluemont, Virginia, at the base of the Blue Ridge Mountains, following a route that was similar to that of Virginia State Route 7.

The Norfolk Southern Railway now operates a spur between the Alexandria waterfront and a north-south route that had traveled through Potomac Yard before the Yard closed

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. The spur formerly served trains traveling from the eastern end of the Bluemont Division to the Southern Railway’s freight and passenger stations in old town Alexandria. As the Southern Railway owned and operated the spur and the stations, this section of track remained in operation after the W&OD closed.

A paved trail in Alexandria’s linear Mt. Jefferson Park has replaced part of the Bluemont Division’s course through that city. The Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority’s W&OD Trail travels in the Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Regional Park within the Bluemont Division’s former right-of-way from the Alexandria/Arlington boundary through Bluemont Junction to Purcellville. The section of the Bluemont Division between Purcellville and Bluemont has not become a part of any trail, as the W&OD Railroad abandoned this section in 1938, thirty years before the remainder of its line closed.

The stations on the Alexandria-Bluemont line of the W&OD’s Bluemont Division (with locations of sites in 2008) were:

(End)

The following remnants of the Alexandria-Bluemont Line existed in 2000 and later. Some were photographed in 1997 or in subsequent years:

The stations on the Great Falls Division of the W&OD (with locations of sites in 2008) were:

The Thrifton-Bluemont Junction connecting line, a component of the W&OD’s Bluemont Division, opened in 1912. The line connected the W&OD’s Great Falls Division (formerly the Great Falls and Old Dominion Railroad) with the Bluemont Division’s Alexandria-Bluemont line.

The line closed in sections in 1963 and 1968. I-66 and the adjacent Custis Trail replaced the line between Thrifton and Washington Boulevard in Ballston. Arlington County’s Bluemont Junction Trail replaced the line between Washington Boulevard and Bluemont Junction.

Bluemont Junction, where the Bluemont Junction Trail now meets the W&OD Trail, presently contains an Arlington County railroad display that features a Southern Railway bay window caboose. The caboose was built in 1971, three years after the W&OD Railroad closed.

The stations on the Thrifton-Bluemont Junction connecting line (with locations of sites in 2008) were:

I-66 between Lee Highway (U.S. Route 29) and Washington Boulevard.

Bluemont Junction Trail between Washington Boulevard and Mile 3.3 of Washington & Old Dominion Railroad Trail.

Custis Trail between Lee Highway (U.S. Route 29) and Washington Boulevard.

Bluemont Junction Park between Fairfax Drive and W&OD Trail.

At least four locomotives that the W&OD had owned or leased still survived in 2014.

Kanton Fayence

Der Kanton Fayence war bis 2015 ein französischer Kanton im Arrondissement Draguignan, im Département Var und in der Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur; sein Hauptort war Fayence. Vertreter im Generalrat des Départements war zuletzt von 2001 bis 2015 François Cavallier (zunächst DVD jogging water bottle holder, dann UMP).

Der Kanton Fayence war 358,96 km² groß und hatte (1999) 18.127 Einwohner, was einer Bevölkerungsdichte von 50 Einwohnern pro km² entsprach. Er lag im Mittel 451 Meter über Normalnull, zwischen 11 Meter in Tanneron und 1712 Meter in Mons.

Der Kanton bestand aus acht Gemeinden:

Brignoles • Draguignan • Flayosc • Fréjus • Garoult • Hyères • La Crau • La Garde • La Seyne-sur-Mer-1 • La Seyne-sur-Mer-2 • Le Luc • Ollioules • Roquebrune-sur-Argens • Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer • Sainte-Maxime • Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume • Saint-Raphaël • Solliès-Pont • Toulon-1 • Toulon-2 • Toulon-3 • Toulon-4 • Vidauban

Aups | Barjols | Besse-sur-Issole | Brignoles | Callas | Collobrières | Comps-sur-Artuby | Cotignac | Cuers | Draguignan | Fayence | Fréjus | Grimaud | Hyères-Est | Hyères-Ouest | La Crau | La Garde&nbsp steel water bottle;| La Roquebrussanne | La Seyne-sur-Mer | La Valette-du-Var&nbsp personalized stainless steel water bottles;| Le Beausset | Le Luc | Le Muy | Lorgues | Ollioules | Rians | Saint-Mandrier-sur-Mer | Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume | Saint-Raphaël | Saint-Tropez | Salernes | Six-Fours-les-Plages | Solliès-Pont | Tavernes | Toulon-1 | Toulon-2 | Toulon-3 | Toulon-4 | Toulon-5 | Toulon-6 | Toulon-7 | Toulon-8 | Toulon-9

Совхозный (Удмуртия)

Россия

Удмуртия

Завьяловский

Совхозное

56°41′15″ с. ш. 53°06′18″ в. д.

1085 человек (2003)

UTC+4

+7 3412

427008

Совхо́зный — село в Завьяловском районе Удмуртской Республики, административный центр Совхозного сельского поселения.

Расположено в 19 километрах к югу от центра города Ижевск и в 20 километрах к юго-западу от села Завьялово. Рядом с селом проходят маршрут E 22 и участок железной дорого Ижевск — Агрыз, ближайший остановочный пункт на котором — Лудзя. Через Совхозный в Ижевск ходят электропоезда из Вятских Полян, Кизнера, Казани, Набережных Челнов, Сайгатки и Янаула. По северной окраине села протекает река Лудзинка, правый приток реки Иж.

Указом президиума Верховного совета УАССР от 28 сентября 1960 года вновь возникшему населённому пункту на центральной ферме совхоза «Правда» присваивается название посёлок Совхозный, он причисляется к Юськинскому сельсовету и становится его центром.

В 1994 году сельсовет преобразуется в Юськинскую сельскую администрацию, а в 2005 году — в Муниципальное образование «Совхозное» (сельское поселение).

В 2004 году постановлением Госсовета Удмуртской республики, посёлок Совхозный преобразовывается в село Совхозный electric meat tenderizer machine.

Главным предприятием села является Общество с ограниченной ответственностью (ООО) «Совхоз-Правда», преобразованное из Товарищества с ограниченной ответственностью (ТОО) «Правда», а его предшественник: совхоз «Правда» созданный в 1960 году, почтовый адрес: улица Восточная, дом № 39а, село Совхозный, Завьяловский район, Удмуртская Республика, 427008.

Также в селе работают:

Административный центр: село Совхозный

Населённые пункты: Большая Венья • Каравай-Норья • Малая Венья • Непременная Лудзя • Старый Бор • Юськи

Районный центр: Завьялово
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Bogenbach

Mündung bei Bogen

Der Bogenbach ist ein linker Nebenfluss der Donau im Landkreis Straubing-Bogen in Niederbayern.

Der Bogenbach führt seinen Namen ab der Vereinigung seiner beiden Quellgewässer Englmarbach und Rettenbacher Mühlbach heart Bangles. Er fließt, grobmaßstäblich gesehen, zuerst nach Westen unter Abbau einer großen Höhendifferenz bis Gaishausen (Hunderdorf) silver football jersey, gefolgt von einem Abschnitt mit südlicher Ausrichtung bis etwa Waltersdorf (Bogen) und einem weiteren Abschnitt Richtung Westen bis zur Mündung in Bogen (Stadt).

Noch Anfang des 19 meat tenderizing methods. Jahrhunderts trug das Gewässer den Namen Bogen.

Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts wird für Haggner Bach, Steinburger Bach und Gaishauser Bach über Bestände der Flußperlmuschel im Bereich zwischen Primbsensteg und der Brücke von Oberhunderdorf berichtet.

Der Bogenbach ist ab der Einmündung des Dummbachs südlich von Hunderdorf bis zur Mündung in die Donau in der Stadt Bogen auf einer Länge von 10,1 Kilometern ein Gewässer zweiter Ordnung.

Ernst Kitzinger

Ernst Kitzinger (* 12. Dezember 1912 in München; † 22. Januar 2003 in Poughkeepsie, USA) war ein deutsch-amerikanischer Kunsthistoriker. Sein Schwerpunkt war die byzantinische und frühmittelalterliche Kunst.

Der Sohn jüdischer Eltern – sein Vater Wilhelm Nathan Kitzinger war ein bekannter Münchner Rechtsanwalt, seine Mutter die Sozialaktivistin Elisabeth Kitzinger, Tochter des Numismatikers Eugen Merzbacher – bestand 1931 am Münchner Maximiliansgymnasium die Abiturprüfung, unter anderem mit Anton Fingerle und Randolph von Breidbach-Bürresheim waterproof bag case. Anschließend studierte er von 1931 bis 1934 Kunstgeschichte bei Wilhelm Pinder an der Universität München. Seine Doktorarbeit war eine Studie über die römische Malerei des 7. und 8. Jahrhunderts. Auf Grund der beginnenden Judenverfolgung verließ Kitzinger 1934 Deutschland. Über Rom kam er 1935 nach London und fand Beschäftigung am British Museum. Während dieser Zeit befasste er sich mit der Kunst der Angelsachsen. 1937 besuchte er Ägypten und die Türkei, um seine Kenntnisse über die späte Kunst der Antike und die des frühen Mittelalters zu vertiefen. Im Jahr 1940 erschien sein erstes Buch Early Medieval Art at the British Museum.

Als Deutscher war Kitzinger im gleichen Jahr gezwungen, England zu verlassen. Er wurde neun Monate lang in Australien interniert best steak tenderizer marinade. In dieser Zeit stand er in Briefkontakt mit seinem Cousin Richard Krautheimer best fabric pill remover, der seit Ende 1935 in den USA lebte und seit 1937 am Vassar College in Poughkeepsie lehrte custom football shirts. 1941 gelang es dem Warburg Institute seine Freilassung zu erwirken. Kitzinger ging in die USA, wo er am Dumbarton Oaks Research Center for Byzantine Studies in Washington, D.C. eine Anstellung fand. Während der ersten Zeit in Dumbarton Oaks beschäftigte er sich mit den byzantinischen Monumenten des Balkans. 1955 wurde Kitzinger “Director of Studies” von Dumbarton Oaks. 1967 verließ er das Institut, um an der Harvard University den Lehrstuhl eines Arthur Kingsley Porter University Professors zu übernehmen, den er bis zu seiner Pensionierung 1979 innehatte. 1961 wurde Kitzinger in die American Academy of Arts and Sciences gewählt. Seit 1970 war er korrespondierendes Mitglied der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Kitzingers Studien über byzantinische und frühmittelalterliche Kunst fanden in zahlreichen Veröffentlichungen ihren Niederschlag:

Seine Studien in Dumbarton Oaks über die byzantinischen Monumente des Balkans führten zu einer Veröffentlichung über die Monumente von Stobi. Dann befasste sich Kitzinger mit den Mosaiken des normannischen Sizilien, die er in dem sechsbändigen Werk I mosaici del periodo normanno in Sicilia beschrieb.

Unter seiner Leitung entwickelte sich Dumbarton Oaks zu einer international anerkannten Institution, wovon die jährlich erscheinenden Dumbarton Oaks Papers zeugen. In Harvard setzte Kitzinger – neben seiner Lehre und der Betreuung von Doktoranden – seine Studien fort. Die Bücher Byzantine art in the making und The art of Byzantium and the medieval West sind die Ergebnisse dieser Studien.

Auch nach seiner Pensionierung setzte er seine Studien fort. So wurde zum Beispiel die Abhandlung über die Mosaiken des normannischen Sizilien erst 1992 zu Ende gebracht.

Kitzinger war Träger des Ordens Pour le Mérite für Wissenschaft und Künste (1982) und des Österreichischen Ehrenzeichens für Wissenschaft und Kunst (1990).

Celebrity Head Chef

Celebrity Head Chef is the second series of TV3’s cookery series, Head Chef. The series features Conrad Gallagher, the youngest chef ever to win a Michelin Star and stars Wagner Fiuza-Carrilho from The X Factor; Mary Burke, the mammy from Crystal Swing; Adele King (Twink); Geraldine from The Apprentice; Michael Hayes, the presenter from How Low Can You Go?; and former model Kohlin Harris football t shirts for kids.

As there are no eliminations in the show, the series will begin and end with 6 contestants. At the conclusion of the final episode, Conrad will choose the winner.

Wagner Carrilho was an X Factor contestant known for his charismatic performances and his unique personality. After being rejected in the audition round, Wagner was called back into the competition as Louis Walsh’s Wild card buy water bottle. He was eliminated in the 8th week of the X Factor competition after performing in the final showdown with Irish singer Mary Byrne.

Mary Burke is the mother and keyboardist of the popular family singing group steak tenderiser marinade, Crystal Swing. The group has appeared on The Late Late on RTÉ and The Ellen DeGeneres Show in America.

Michael Hayes was the presenter from How Low Can You Go? on RTÉ Two. He is also the presenter of Animal A & E on TV3.

Geraldine O’Callaghan was a semi-finalist on The Apprentice on TV3.She was eliminated in the 12th week of the Apprentice competition reusable juice bottles.

Kohlin Harris was Ireland’s first supermodel, modelling for Calvin Klein and Versace.

Adele King is an entertainer better known as Twink formerly of a group called Maxi, Dick and Twink. She has also been described as Ireland’s panto queen. She is also respected in the sugar craft world.