Bangshi River

Bangshi River (also spelt Bansi) (Bengali: বংশী নদী) is an important river in central Bangladesh. It originates in Jamalpur, from the course of the old Brahmaputra and flows past the Madhupur tract. It flows through Tangail and meets the Tongi in Ghazipur. It passes near Jatiyo Smriti Soudho in Savar and falls into the Dhaleshwari. About 238 kilometres (148 mi) long, it is not navigable for most of the year except when swelled by the rains of the monsoon.
Louhajang is a tributary of the Bangshi
The river’s average depth is 30 feet (9 m) and maximum depth is 80 feet (24 m).
Dhamrai on the banks of the Bangshi is still famous for its muslin weaving.
A report on wetland protection and enhancement says, “The Turag-Bangshi floodplain is located in Kaliakair Upazila of Gazipur District. Upstream the basin is connected via the Dhaleswari-Pungli River to the greater Jamuna floodplain, and downstream it is connected through the Tongi River with the Buriganga-Meghna River system. The Upper Turag-Lower Bangshi is the main source of water in the region and flows through the site. All associated beels and other floodplain areas are connected to the main river through a series of khals and other channels. This is a deeply flooded area in the low-red soil plateau of Madhupur tract. The floodplain is inundated when water flows over the banks of the Turag-Bangshi river making all the low areas become a connected sheet of water in the monsoon. By late November, most of the water recedes and boro rice is planted in almost all of the low-lying areas. During the rainy season the water area is about 43 km² while in the dry season the water area becomes less than 7 km². About 2,68,900 people live in this area with 84% of households being involved in fishing, and 15 % of households are full time fishers

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A bazar nayar hat situated at bank while the famous pottery village pal para is also situated on south side of Bangshi.
Coordinates: 24°20′55″N 90°04′06″E / 24.3485°N 90.0684°E / 24.3485; 90.0684

Michael Schmid

Michael ”Mike” Schmid (ur. 18 marca 1984 r

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1992: Edgar Grospiron • 1994: Jean-Luc Brassard • 1998: Jonny Moseley • 2002: Janne Lahtela • 2006: Dale Begg-Smith • 2010: Alexandre Bilodeau • 2014: Alexandre Bilodeau
1994: Andreas Schönbächler • 1998: Eric Bergoust • 2002: Aleš Valenta • 2006: Han Xiaopeng • 2010: Alaksiej Hryszyn • 2014: Anton Kusznir
2010: Michael Schmid • 2014: Jean Frédéric Chapuis
2014: Joss Christensen
2014: David Wise
1992: Donna Weinbrecht • 1994: Stine Lise Hattestad • 1998: Tae Satoya • 2002: Kari Traa • 2006: Jennifer Heil • 2010: Hannah Kearney • 2014: Justine Dufour-Lapointe
1994: Lina Cheryazova • 1998: Nikki Stone • 2002: Alisa Camplin • 2006: Evelyne Leu • 2010: Lydia Lassila • 2014: Ałła Cuper
2010: Ashleigh McIvor • 2014: Marielle Thompson
2014: Dara Howell
2014: Maddie Bowman

Samuel Tolver Preston

Samuel Tolver Preston (8 July 1844 – 1917) was an English engineer and physicist.
His parents were Daniel Bloom Preston (born 1807) and Mary Susannah Tolver. Preston was educated as a Telegraph-engineer. He went to Munich where he attained his Ph.D in 1894 with Ludwig Boltzmann. After that, he worked as a teacher.
He is known for his works (1875–1894) on the kinetic theory of gases and his attempts to combine this theory with Le Sage’s theory of gravitation. In his book Physics of the Ether (1875) he claimed that if matter is subdivided into ether particles, they would travel at the speed of light and represent an enormous amount of energy. In this way, one grain of matter would contain energy equal to 1000 millions of foot-tons (whereby one foot-ton = 2240 foot pounds).
However, Preston’s thoughts were entirely based on classical, non-relativistic physics and cannot be compared with Albert Einstein’s mass–energy equivalence, which is a consequence of special relativity Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016.
Preston also seemed to be the first (1885) to recognize the redundancy of Michael Faraday’s explanation of electromagnetic induction. Einstein recognized a similar problem in his paper “On the electrodynamics of moving bodies” (1905, i.e. special relativity).
In 1876 he corresponded with James Clerk Maxwell and alluded to the work of John James Waterston. In 1880 he corresponded with Charles Robert Darwin.

List of international cricket centuries at the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium

The M. Chinnaswamy Stadium is a cricket ground in Bangalore, India. It is the home of the Karnataka State Cricket Association and is a Test, One Day International (ODI) and Twenty20 International (T20I) venue. It has a capacity of 36,000 spectators. The ground has hosted 21 Test matches, the first in 1974 when India played the West Indies. It has also staged 24 ODI matches, the first of which was in 1982 when India faced Sri Lanka. One T20I has been played at the ground between India and Pakistan in 2012. Of the 24 ODIs played at the stadium, seven have been World Cup matches, with the stadium playing host to at least one match whenever the World Cup has been played in India

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Three centuries were scored in the ground’s first Test match, all by West Indian batsmen, with Alvin Kallicharran becoming the first Test centurion at the venue. The record for the highest individual Test score at the ground is held by Pakistan’s Younis Khan who made 267 against India in 2005. The highest Test score at the ground by an Indian batsman is 239 by Sourav Ganguly in 2007 against Pakistan, which is also his personal-best Test score.
The first ODI century at the ground came in the ground’s maiden ODI in 1982, with Sri Lankan batsman Roy Dias making 121 against India in a losing cause. Rohit Sharma holds the record for the highest ODI score at the ground with 209 from 158 balls which he made against Australia in 2013. The ground has also witnessed the fastest World Cup century which came off 50 balls by Ireland’s Kevin O’Brien against England during the 2011 World Cup.
As of November 2015, a total of 30 Test centuries and 13 ODI centuries have been made on the ground. Former India batsman Sachin Tendulkar, who has scored four international centuries at the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, holds the record for most centuries at the venue.

The following table summarises the Test centuries scored at the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium.
The following table summarises the One Day International centuries scored at the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium.

Griqualand East

Griqualand East (Afrikaans: Griekwaland-Oos), officially known as New Griqualand (Dutch: Nieuw Griqualand), was one of four short-lived Griqua states in Southern Africa from the early 1860s until the late 1870s and was located between the Umzimkulu and Kinira Rivers, south of the Sotho Kingdom.
Griqualand East’s capital, Kokstad, was the final place of settlement for a people who had migrated several times on their journey from the Cape of Good Hope and over the mountains of present-day Lesotho.
The territory was occupied by the British Empire and became a colony in 1874, shortly before the death of its founder and only leader, Adam Kok III. A short while later, the small territory was incorporated into the neighbouring Cape Colony. Though for a long time overshadowed in history by the story of the Voortrekkers, the trek of the Griquas has been described as “one of the great epics of the 19th century.”

Before the arrival of migrants from the west and north, the area formed part of the Mpondo kingdom under King Faku, who ruled as sovereign of the ethnically Xhosa dynasty from 1815–1867. During his reign, Faku initially welcomed many refugees who came over the territory’s north-eastern border, fleeing from the incursions and raids by the army of Shaka (leader of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828). As Faku eventually realised that his warriors could not defend the eastern part of his kingdom against Shaka, he decided to evacuate the area, leaving behind what became known as Nomansland (often spelled “No-man’s land” in contemporary sources).
Meanwhile, a group of Griquas who had left the Cape of Good Hope in the 18th century and had settled in the area around present-day Philippolis in 1826 faced the prospect of their area coming under the control of the emerging Orange Free State (Oranje Vrijstaat – officially established as a Boer republic in 1854). In 1861 most of these inhabitants embarked on a tiresome and exhausting journey, leaving to move southwards over Quathlamba (today known as the Drakensberg mountain range), but first-hand witnesses give two differing narratives of the reasons and motivations for their last trek.
According to the account of John Robinson Billige Nike Fotball Jerseys online 2016, first Premier of Natal, the inhabitants of Philippolis were invited by Sir George Grey, administrator of the area on behalf of the United Kingdom, to settle in the aforementioned Nomansland, south of what had by then become the British Colony of Natal. Their settlement there was to avoid a potential conflict with the Free State and simultaneously serve as a buffer against Bushmen and “their predatory raids upon the farmers and natives of Natal” After their leader Adam Kok III had sent an advance party to survey the area, the entire group agreed to the arrangement and arrived there in 1862.
More recently recovered official documents, however, tell the story of a deal that was struck between the British Empire and the Free State in 1854, long before the Griquas had any knowledge of their fate. The British agreed to expel the entire population in exchange for a settlement of a border conflict between the Afrikaners and the Cape colonists. According to the sources, Adam Kok III and his followers only learned about the plans six years after the official document had been secretly signed. Realising that they could not muster a fighting-force that could match the colonial army, and after having voiced their opposition to becoming either subjects to the Crown in the Cape Colony or servants in the Free State, they were forcibly removed into exile in 1863.
Ultimately, all sources agree that the last great Griqua-leader’s followers ended up in the area around Mount Currie and set up a Laager, a simple settlement site made up of small huts, where they remained for over half a decade. In 1869, Reverent Dower of the London Mission Society visited the place and agreed to establish a church if the people were to move once more; after consultation with the populace, an area farther south of the mountain was chosen, and upon arrival in 1872, the town of Kokstad was founded, named in honour of their leader.
The state that was established around Kokstad, while Griqua ruled, was populated overwhelmingly by the pre-existing Xhosa speaking peoples, with the Griqua forming only a very small, politically-dominant minority.
Though, in historical terms, constantly on the move, with permanent settlements existing only for short intervals, the people of Griqualand East managed to establish a Raad (or Volksraad), a gathering of 12 members which made decisions on behalf of the Griqua population and formed delegations to deal with the surrounding polities.
In 1867, after the Bank of Durban had begun printing its own banknotes, Kok and his followers embarked on a similar experiment of their own and had about 10,000 one pound-notes printed for use in the area. The plans to actually introduce them never materialised, and, with the exception of a few remaining samples, almost all of them were destroyed without ever being in circulation.
After the move to Kokstad, however, a new venture in introducing a local currency was more successful in 1874; designed by Strachan and Co. and minted in Germany, several coins were used (see picture) and remained in circulation long after the disestablishment of the country.
Confirmation that the Strachan and Co circulated as money in the region from 1874 comes from the local Standard Bank at Kokstad . and the Managing Director of Strachan and Co
The seal included in the information-box is a rough replica of a seal shown on the first set of banknotes of 1867 which is the only known and surviving depiction. On the banknote itself, it is flanked to the left and right by a band or ribbon which reads “GOUVERNEMENT VAN | NIEUW GRIQUALAND” and includes a helm with mantling. The actual implied colours are unknown. The Griqua flag is a vertically flipped version of the “Vierkleur” used by Transvaal and the South African Republic. A single source dates its first documented appearance to 1903, but the flag itself might have been in use earlier; whether or not independent Griqualand East actually deployed it is uncertain.
“There you have it… we were not consulted. We can say nothing.”
In the differing sources and versions of history, the end of Griqualand East’s story is as contested as its beginning, and the reasons for the country’s dissolution remain hazy. Local Cape sources record an official (but heavily qualified) request in 1869, from Adam Kok III, for British administration, on condition that land title be respected and that Griqualand East should under no circumstances be incorporated into the Colony of Natal. British sources also claim that the Griquas then sold much of their land voluntarily, and that the overall annexation of the territory took place “at the wish of the inhabitants themselves.” On the other hand, opinion among the Griqua people themselves seems to have been divided. A quote by Adam Kok III, upon learning of the United Kingdom’s plans, suggests that there was misunderstanding or even deception involved in the British takeover: “There you have it… we were not consulted. We can say nothing.” The British assumed direct control of the territory in 1874.
What is known for a fact is that the Griqua leader, whose name still adorns the town he founded, died in December 1875 after being severely injured in a wagon-accident. At his funeral, his cousin commented that with Kok’s death, the Griquas’ last hope for an independent state in Southern Africa had died as well.
After coming under British rule, Griqualand East was administered by the British as a separate colony for several years. During this time, the British Colonial Office put considerable pressure on the government of the neighbouring Cape Colony to annexe the costly and turbulent territory. However the Cape, newly under Responsible Government, was reluctant to assume responsibility for Griqualand East due to its considerable expenses and its understandably resentful population.
Although initially the Cape had refused to annex the territory, agreement was reached after substantial negotiation and in 1877 the Cape Parliament passed the Griqualand East Annexation Act (Act 38 of 1877). The act was only promulgated two years later on 17 September 1879, when four magistrates were set up, at Kokstad, Matatiele, Mount Frere and Umzimkulu. The territory was also given two elected seats in the Cape Parliament, which at the time was elected through the multi-racial “Cape Qualified Franchise” system, whereby qualifications for suffrage were applied to all males, regardless of race.
The Griqua people had only ever been a small, ruling minority of the population of Griqualand East. Once independent Griqua rule was ended, the Xhosa speaking Pondo people, who had long constituted the majority of the Griqualand East population, came to own increasing amounts of land in the area, together with newly-arriving European settlers. These demographic factors led to a further dilution of Griqua identity and a century later, under Apartheid, the territory was incorporated into the Xhosa “homeland” of the Transkei.
When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910, the Cape Colony changed its name to “Cape Province,” and during the 1980s, part of former Griqualand East was partitioned off into the Transkei, one of the four nominally independent Bantustans. In 1994, shortly before the first all-inclusive elections, it was incorporated into the southern part of the KwaZulu-Natal province. Kokstad retained its name and is today one of the main cities of the Sisonke District Municipality.

Monnaie de Populonia

La monnaie de Populonia est constituée de monnaies que la ville étrusque de Populonia a émises et produites depuis la moitié du Ve siècle av. J.-C. jusqu’à la moitié du IIIe siècle av. J.-C. lorsqu’elle a perdu toute autonomie.

Populonia jouissait avec Volterra du droit de battre monnaie pour toute la confédération étrusque.
Argent et bronze avec légende, Argent et bronze sans légende, or.
Le mot lui-même de Populonia, en étrusque Pupluna, a, d’après les historiens, la même signification que le mot « mines » en français : Pupluna était donc, sous les Étrusques, la ville des mines et des métaux port unique de leur civilisation sandro soldes, proche de l’Île d’Elbe et de ses mines de fer.
À Prestino une pièce avec gorgone (Méduse) et X a été trouvée dans des couches sédimentaires datant de la moitié du Ve siècle av. J.-C. permettant de dater la première série. D’autres découvertes significatives ont été faites à Montalcino, Sovana, Populonia.
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Wimbledon Championships 1896/Herreneinzel

Herreneinzel der Wimbledon Championships 1896 2016 fußballtrikots.
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Authentica « Habita »

L’Authentica « Habita » (ou l’Authentique « Habita ») est une constitution promulguée probablement en novembre 1158, pendant la diète de Roncaglia (ou peut-être dès 1155) par l’empereur Frédéric Barberousse en faveur des étudiants des écoles de droit romain de Bologne. C’est la première grande donation de privilèges octroyée aux « écoliers » dans l’Europe médiévale, et c’est un texte fondateur pour les universités des siècles suivants.
Cette charte répondait à une démarche effectuée auprès de l’empereur en mai 1155 par les « quatre docteurs » de Bologne (Martinus Gosia, Bulgarus, Jacobus de Boragine et Hugo de Porta Ravennate) et leurs écoliers. Le texte ne mentionne pas explicitement la ville de Bologne : il est établi en faveur de ceux qui voyagent dans le but de s’instruire, et les professeurs de droit 2016 soccer jerseys vente, inspirateurs du texte, y sont évoqués en termes très honorables.
Le privilège accordé avait deux objets. D’abord, ceux qui désiraient étudier pouvaient voyager partout librement, et il était défendu, sous des peines très sévères, de les soumettre loin de leur patrie à aucune vexation, et particulièrement ils ne pouvaient jamais être recherchés pour les délits et les dettes de leurs compatriotes. Ils bénéficiaient d’autre part, comme les clercs, d’un privilège de juridiction (privilegium fori) : un étudiant défendeur pouvait se faire juger par son professeur ou par l’évêque de la ville, échappant ainsi à la juridiction des magistrats locaux ordinaires
Selon Savigny, ce second objet résulte de l’interprétation que fit l’école des juristes bolonais, les glossateurs, de son propre privilège. Ainsi, alors que le texte indiquait littéralement “Hujus rei optione data scholaribus, eos ooram domino vel magistro suo, vel ipsius cavitatis episcopo, quibus hanc juridictionem dedimus, conveniat”, soit un partage de juridiction entre les professeurs de l’université (“magistro”), les magistrats ordinaires (“domino”) et l’évêque de Bologne (“cavitatis episcopo”), les professeurs de l’école de droit s’attribuèrent le titre “domino”, ce qui, loin de constituer une simple distinction honorifique, eut pour effet d’exclure les causes estudiantines de la juridiction des magistrats ordinaires de la ville de Bologne.
Le mot authentica (parfois en français authentique) désignait dans le Corpus juris civilis les novelles (dont le recueil, une des quatre parties constitutives du Corpus, était appelé l’Authenticum). On appliquait plus particulièrement ce nom aux fragments de novelles qui étaient insérés dans le Code pour compléter ou rectifier certains passages. L’Authentica « Habita » fut insérée au titre du Code « Ne filius pro patre » (Livre IV, titre 13).
L’Authentica « Habita » de Frédéric Barberousse eut ensuite un équivalent en France quand le roi Philippe Auguste, par un édit de 1200, décida de soustraire les étudiants de Paris à la juridiction du prévôt : les causes les impliquant, comme celles impliquant les clercs, devaient être entendues devant la cour de justice de l’évêque.


The tarot (/ˈtæroʊ/; first known as trionfi and later as tarocchi, tarock, and others) is a pack of playing cards (most commonly numbering 78), used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play a group of card games such as Italian tarocchini and French tarot. From the late 18th century until the present time the tarot has also found use by mystics and occultists for divination.
Like the common deck of playing cards, the tarot has four suits (which vary by region, being the French suits in Northern Europe, the Latin suits in Southern Europe, and the German suits in Central Europe). Each of these suits has pip cards numbering from one (or Ace) to ten and four face cards (King, Queen, Knight, and Jack/Knave) for a total of 14 cards. In addition, the tarot has a separate 21-card trump suit and a single card known as the Fool. Depending on the game, the Fool may act as the top trump or may be played to avoid following suit.
François Rabelais gives tarau as the name of one of the games played by Gargantua in his Gargantua and Pantagruel; this is likely the earliest attestation of the French form of the name.[citation needed] Tarot cards are used throughout much of Europe to play card games. In English-speaking countries, where these games are largely unplayed, tarot cards are now used primarily for divinatory purposes. Occultists call the trump cards and the Fool “the major arcana” while the ten pip and four court cards in each suit are called minor arcana. The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.

The English and French word tarot derives from the Italian tarocchi, which has no known origin or etymology. The singular term is tarocco, commonly known today as a term for a type of blood orange in Italian. When it spread, the word was changed to tarot in French and Tarock in German. There are many theories to the origin of the word, many with no connection to the occult. One theory relates the name “tarot” to the Taro River in northern Italy, near Parma; the game seems to have originated in northern Italy, in Milan or Bologna. Other writers believe it comes from the Arabic word طرق turuq, which means ‘ways’. Alternatively, it may be from the Arabic ترك taraka, ‘to leave, abandon, omit, leave behind’.
Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, probably from Mamluk Egypt, with suits of Batons or Polo sticks (commonly known as Wands by those practicing occult or divinatory tarot), Swords, Cups

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, and Coins (commonly known as disks, or pentacles by practitioners of the occult or divinatory tarot). These suits were very similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian, Spanish and Portuguese playing card decks.
The first known documented tarot cards were created between 1430 and 1450 in Milan, Ferrara and Bologna in northern Italy when additional trump cards with allegorical illustrations were added to the common four-suit pack. These new decks were originally called carte da trionfi, triumph cards, and the additional cards known simply as trionfi, which became “trumps” in English. The first literary evidence of the existence of carte da trionfi is a written statement in the court records in Florence, in 1440. The oldest surviving tarot cards are from fifteen fragmented decks painted in the mid 15th century for the Visconti-Sforza family, the rulers of Milan. During the 16th-century, a new game played with a standard deck but sharing the same name (triomphe) was quickly becoming popular. This coincided with the older game being renamed tarocchi.
Picture-card packs are first mentioned by Martiano da Tortona probably between 1418 and 1425, since the painter he mentions, Michelino da Besozzo, returned to Milan in 1418, while Martiano himself died in 1425. He describes a deck with 16 picture cards with images of the Greek gods and suits depicting four kinds of birds, not the common suits. However the 16 cards were obviously regarded as “trumps” as, about 25 years later, Jacopo Antonio Marcello called them a ludus triumphorum, or “game of trumps”.
Special motifs on cards added to regular packs show philosophical, social, poetical, astronomical, and heraldic ideas, Roman/Greek/Babylonian heroes, as in the case of the Sola-Busca-Tarocchi (1491) and the Boiardo Tarocchi poem, written at an unknown date between 1461 and 1494.
Two playing card decks from Milan (the Brera-Brambilla and Cary-Yale-Tarocchi)—extant, but fragmentary—were made circa 1440. Three documents dating from 1 January 1441 to July 1442, use the term trionfi. The document from January 1441 is regarded as an unreliable reference; however, the same painter, Sagramoro, was commissioned by the same patron, Leonello d’Este, as in the February 1442 document. The game seemed to gain in importance in the year 1450, a Jubilee year in Italy, which saw many festivities and the movement of many pilgrims.
Three mid-15th century sets were made for members of the Visconti family. The first deck, and probably the prototype, is called the Cary-Yale Tarot (or Visconti-Modrone Tarot) and was created between 1442 and 1447 by an anonymous painter for Filippo Maria Visconti. The cards (only 67) are today held in the Cary collection of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. The most famous was painted in the mid-15th century, to celebrate Francesco Sforza and his wife Bianca Maria Visconti, daughter of the duke Filippo Maria. Probably, these cards were painted by Bonifacio Bembo or Francesco Zavattari between 1451 and 1453. Of the original cards, 35 are in The Morgan Library & Museum, 26 are at the Accademia Carrara, thirteen are at the Casa Colleoni, and four: The Devil, The Tower, The Knight of Coins, and the 3 of Swords, are lost or were never made. This “Visconti-Sforza” deck, which has been widely reproduced, reflects conventional iconography of the time to a significant degree.
Hand-painted tarot cards remained a privilege of the upper classes and, although a single sermon by a Dominican preacher inveighing against the evil inherent in cards (chiefly owing to their use in gambling) can be traced to the 14th century, no routine condemnations of tarot were found during its early history.
Because the earliest tarot cards were hand-painted, the number of the decks produced is thought to have been rather small, and it was only after the invention of the printing press that mass production of cards became possible. Decks survive from this era from various cities in France, and the most popular pattern of these early printed decks is called the Tarot de Marseille such as the Jean Dodal Tarot (Lyon) and the Jean Noblet Tarot (Paris) for example.
The original purpose of tarot cards was for playing games, the first basic rules appearing in the manuscript of Martiano da Tortona before 1425, and the next from the year 1637. The game of tarot has many cultural variations. In Italy the game has become less popular. Tarocchini has survived in Bologna and there are still others played in Piedmont and Sicily; but the number of games outside of Italy is much higher.
The 18th century saw tarot’s greatest revival, during which the games became the most popular in Europe. It was played everywhere in Europe with the exception of the British Isles, the Iberian peninsula, and the Ottoman Balkans. French tarot experienced a revival beginning in the 1970s in its native country and France has the strongest tarot gaming community. Regional tarot games—often known as tarock, tarok, or tarokk—are widely played in central Europe within the borders of the former Austro-Hungarian empire.
Each card possesses a pictogram and title that represents a specific concept or archetype. The belief in divination associated with Tarot focuses on the prospect that whatever cards are dealt to the participant will be revelatory.
Divination using playing cards is in evidence as early as 1540 in a book entitled The Oracles of Francesco Marcolino da Forlì which allows a simple method of divination, though the cards are used only to select a random oracle and have no meaning in themselves. But manuscripts from 1735 (The Square of Sevens) and 1750 (Pratesi Cartomancer) document rudimentary divinatory meanings for the cards of the tarot as well as a system for laying out the cards. Giacomo Casanova wrote in his diary that in 1765 his Russian mistress frequently used a deck of playing cards for divination.
Antoine Court de Gébelin, a French-born Protestant pastor and Freemason, published a dissertation on the origins of the symbolism in the Tarot in volume VIII of his unfinished fifteen volumes of the Le Monde Primitif. De Gébelin, who never knew the Tarot as the Tarot de Marseille (a name which came much later), thought the Tarot represented ancient Egyptian Theology, including Isis, Osiris and Typhon (the Greek name for Seth), but never mentions Thoth. For example, he thought the card he knew as the Papesse and known today as the High Priestess represented Isis. He also related four Tarot cards to the four Christian Cardinal virtues: Temperance, Justice, Strength and Prudence. He relates The Tower to a Greek fable about avarice. Although Egyptian had not yet been deciphered by Champollion, Gébelin asserted the name “Tarot” came from the Egyptian words Tar, “path” or “road”, and the word Ro, Ros or Rog, meaning “King” or “royal”, and that the Tarot literally translated to the Royal Road of Life.
A variety of styles of tarot decks and designs exist and a number of typical regional patterns have emerged. Historically, one of the most important designs is the one usually known as the Tarot de Marseille. This standard pattern was the one studied by Court de Gébelin, and cards based on this style illustrate his Le Monde primitif. The Tarot de Marseille was also popularized in the 20th century by Paul Marteau.[citation needed] Some current editions of cards based on the Marseille design go back to a deck of a particular Marseille design that was printed by Nicolas Conver in 1760. Other regional styles include the “Swiss” Tarot. This one substitutes Juno and Jupiter for the Papess, or High Priestess and the Pope, or Hierophant. In Florence an expanded deck called Minchiate was used. This deck of 97 cards includes astrological symbols including the four elements, as well as traditional tarot motifs.
Some decks exist primarily as artwork; and such art decks sometimes contain only the 22 trump cards.
French suited tarot cards began to appear in Germany during the 18th century. The first generation of French suited tarots depicted scenes of animals on the trumps and were thus called “Tiertarock” decks (‘Tier’ being German for ‘animal’). Card maker Göbl of Munich is often credited for this design innovation. Current French suited tarot decks come in these patterns:
The illustrations of French suited tarot trumps depart considerably from the older Italian suited design. The Renaissance allegorical motifs were abandoned for new themes or simply just whimsical pictures of daily life. With very few exceptional recent cases such as the “Tarocchi di Alan”, “Tarot of Reincarnation” and the “Tarot de la Nature”, French suited tarot cards are nearly exclusively used for card games and rarely for divination.
Example of 18th century “Tiertarock” or animal tarot.
Industrie und Glück Tarock trumps
Cego trumps
Tarot Nouveau trumps circa 1910
German suited decks for Württemberg, Brixental, and Bavarian tarock are different. They have 36 cards, ranging from 6 to 10, Under Knave (Unter), Over Knave (Ober), King, and Ace. These use Ace-Ten ranking, like Klaverjas, where Ace is the highest followed by 10, King, Ober, Unter, then 9 to 6. The heart suit is the default trump suit. The deck is also used to play Schafkopf.
The Tarocco Siciliano is the only deck to use the so-called Portuguese suit system which uses Spanish pips but intersects them like Italian pips. It changes some of the trumps, and has a card labeled Miseria (destitution). It omits the Two and Three of coins, and numerals one to four in clubs, swords and cups: it thus has 64 cards but the One of coins is not used, being the bearer of the former stamp tax. The cards are quite small and not reversible.
These were the oldest form of tarot deck to be made, being first devised in the 15th century in northern Italy. The occult tarot decks are based on decks of this type. Three decks of this category are still used to play certain games:
Etteilla was the first to issue a revised tarot deck specifically designed for occult purposes rather than game playing. In keeping with the belief that tarot cards are derived from the Book of Thoth, Etteilla’s tarot contained themes related to ancient Egypt. The 78-card tarot deck used by esotericists has two distinct parts:
The terms “major arcana” and “minor arcana” were first used by Jean-Baptiste Pitois (also known as Paul Christian) and are never used in relation to Tarot card games.
Tarot is often used with the study of the Hermetic Qabalah. In these decks there are Kabbalistic illustrations, most being under the influence of the Rider-Waite-Smith deck. The images on the “Rider-Waite” deck were drawn by artist Pamela Colman Smith following the instructions of mystic and occultist Arthur Edward Waite and were originally published by the Rider Company in 1910. The subjects of the Major Arcana are based on those of the earliest decks, but have been modified to reflect Waite and Smith’s view of tarot. A difference from Marseilles style decks is that Smith drew scenes with esoteric meanings on the suit cards. The Rider-Waite wasn’t the first deck to include completely illustrated suit cards. The first to do so was the 15th century Sola-Busca deck.
Older esoteric decks such as the Visconti-Sforza and Marseilles are less detailed than modern ones. A Marseilles type deck is distinguished by having repetitive motifs on the pip cards, similar to Italian or Spanish playing cards, as opposed to the full scenes found on “Rider-Waite” style decks. These more simply illustrated “Marseilles” style decks are also used esoterically, for divination, and for game play, though the French card game of tarot is now generally played using a relatively modern 19th century design of German origin.[citation needed] Such playing tarot decks generally have twenty one trump cards with genre scenes from 19th century life, a Fool, and have court and pip cards that closely resemble today’s French playing cards.[citation needed]
The Marseilles’ numbered minor arcana cards do not have scenes depicted on them; rather, they sport a geometric arrangement of the number of suit symbols (e.g., swords, rods/wands, cups, coins/pentacles) corresponding to the number of the card (accompanied by botanical and other non-scenic flourishes), while the court cards are often illustrated with flat, two-dimensional drawings.
An example of a modernist tarot deck is Aleister Crowley’s Thoth Tarot (Thoth pronounced /ˈtoʊt/ or /ˈθɒθ/). Crowley, at the height of a lifetime’s work dedicated to occultism, engaged the artist Lady Frieda Harris to paint the cards for the deck according to his specifications. His system of tarot correspondences, published in The Book of Thoth and Liber 777, are an evolution and expansion upon that which he learned in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.
In contrast to the Thoth deck’s colorfulness, the illustrations on Paul Foster Case’s B.O.T.A. Tarot deck are black line drawings on white cards; this is an unlaminated deck intended to be colored by its owner.
Other esoteric decks include the hermetic Golden Dawn Tarot, which claims to be based on a deck by S.L. MacGregor Mathers

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The variety of decks in use is almost endless, and grows yearly. For instance, cat-lovers may have the Tarot of the Cat People, a deck replete with cats in every picture. The Tarot of the Witches and the Aquarian Tarot retain the conventional cards with varying designs. The Tree of Life Tarot’s cards are stark symbolic catalogs; and The Alchemical Tarot, created by Robert M. Place, combines traditional alchemical symbols with tarot images.
These contemporary divination decks change the cards to varying degrees. For example, the Motherpeace Tarot is notable for its circular cards and feminist angle where the male characters have been replaced by females. The Tarot of Baseball has suits of bats, mitts, balls, and bases; “coaches” and “MVPs” instead of Queens and Kings; and major arcana cards such as “The Catcher”, “The Rule Book”, and “Batting a Thousand”. In the Silicon Valley Tarot, major arcana cards include The Hacker, Flame War, The Layoff and The Garage; the suits are Networks, Cubicles, Disks and Hosts; the court cards CEO, Salesman, Marketeer and New Hire. Another tarot in recent years has been the Robin Wood Tarot. This deck retains the Rider-Waite theme while adding Pagan symbolism. As with other decks, the cards are available with a companion book written by Wood which details all of the symbolism and colors utilized in the Major and Minor Arcana.
Unconventionality is embraced by Morgan’s Tarot, produced in 1970 by Morgan Robbins and illustrated by Darshan Chorpash Zenith. Morgan’s Tarot has no suits, no ranking and no ordering of the cards. It has 88 rather than 78 cards and its simple line drawings show an influence from the psychedelic art.[citation needed] Nevertheless, in the introductory booklet that accompanies the deck Robbins claims inspiration for the cards from Tibetan Buddhism.
The tarot created by A. E. Waite and Pamela Colman Smith departs from the earlier tarot design with its use of scenic pip cards and the alteration of how the Strength and Justice cards are ranked.
The Thoth deck has astrological, zodiacal, elemental and Qabalistic symbols. Crowley wrote the book The Book of Thoth to accompany it. This deck retains the traditional order of the trumps but uses Crowley’s words for both the trumps and the courts.
Hermetic Tarot has imagery to function as a textbook and mnemonic device for teaching the gnosis of alchemical symbolical language. An example of this practice is found in the rituals of the 19th-century Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. In the 20th century, Hermetic use of the tarot imagery as a handbook was developed by Carl Gustav Jung’s exploration into the psyche and imagination. A 21st-century example of a Hermetic rooted tarot deck is that of Tarot ReVisioned, a black and white deck and book for the Major Arcana by Leigh J. McCloskey.

Away (canción de Enrique Iglesias)

“Away”es una canción pop del cantante Enrique Iglesias. Es el primer single de su álbum Greatest Hits. La canción cuenta con la colaboración de Sean Garrett y fue lanzado en iTunes el 15 de septiembre de 2008. “Away” fue pensado originalmente para ser el debut en solitario de Garrett como parte de su álbum “Turbo 919”, pero fue entregado a Enrique en su lugar. La canción debutó en el UK Singles Chart, en la posición 132, a una semana de haber sido puesto en el Reino Unido 2016 prada outlet.

El video fue dirigido por Anthony Mandler. El video se estrenó en TRL el 12 de noviembre de 2008. El video cuenta con un cameo de Sean Garrett. En el video se ve a Enrique caminando por el desierto, mirando hacia atrás en el accidente horrible en el que ha muerto mientras que su novia, interpretada por Niki Huey, llora histéricamente. La mayor parte de el video fue filmado en el desierto.
La canción debutó en el UK Singles Chart en el # 132 en la semana que el CD single fue lanzado en Reino Unido y luego salió de la lista.

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