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Gennemstrømning (hydrologi)

Gennemstrømning eller middelvandføring er et begreb inden for hydrologi, som refererer til mængden, dvs. volumet vand som transporteres gennem et vandløb per tidsenhed. Enheden som bruges er normalt l/s (liter per sekund) eller m³/s (kubikmeter per sekund). Tages der hensyn til vandløbets afvandingsareals størrelse fås afstrømningen, der udtrykkes i l/sek/km2 (liter per sekund per kvadratkilometer).

Nedbør og fordampning angives som regel i mm. Det kan derfor være hensigtsmæssigt også at omregne afstrømningen til mm for at få et sammenligneligt tal. En tommelfingerregel siger, at 1 l/sek/km2 = 31

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Middelvandføringen i et vandløb kan beregnes med formlen:

idet:

For at måle vandføringen kan man tage et tværsnit af åens vandområde og gange dette med vandløbets gennemsnitlige hastighed. Denne kan findes ved fx at smide en pind i vandet og se hvor langt, den flyder inden for en given tidsenhed (fx et minut). Andre målinger kan udføres ved brug af sporstoffer, der tilføres i en given opløst koncentration på et givet sted. Ved senere i vandløbet at måle sporstoffets mindskede koncentration kan vandføringen bestemmes.

Imidlertid er ikke dette nogen enkel måleopgave, fordi vandets hastighed i vandmasserne i et tværsnit er stærkt varierende. Ofte vil man kunne beregne middelvandføringen ved hjælp af såkaldte afvandingskort. Først bestemmes arealet af afvandingsområdet (også kaldet nedbørsområdet), altså al nedbøren som render ud i vandløbet på det sted, som betragtes. Nedbørsområdet er begrænset af vandskellet for vandløbet. Af afvandingskortet bestemmes den årlige specifikke vandføring i l/s km2 for området, dette tal multipliceres med nedbørsområdets areal. For mange vandløb findes der automatiske stationer, som måler vandføring. Det gode med afvandingskort er, at et hvilket som helst vandløb kan få sin gennemsnitlige vandføring beregnet. Metoden over kan også anvendes for oversvømmelse eller tørke, blot man kender det specifikke afløb for tilfældet.

Vandstrømmen er ikke ens i et givet tværsnit: langs bredder og bunden vil hastigheden som regel være mindre end ved overfladen midt i vandløbet. Desuden vil vandplanter bremse vandets hastighed.

Vandmængden, der strømmer i et vandløb, varierer fra tid til anden. Det skyldes mange forhold: efter regn vil tilstrømningen således vokse og under tørke modsvarende falde create football shirt. En særlig stor vandføring kan optræde om foråret, når is og sne smelter. Vandstanden kan da vokse med flere meter.

Jo større vandføringen i en flod er, des større evne har floden til at transportere materialer i opløsning.

Der er to grundlæggende definitioner, som bruges for at beskrive et spesifikt vandløbs transportforhold:

Et vandløb kan inddeles i tre områder: en erosionszone, en transportzone og en sedimentationszone.

Enkle vandløb findes i højereliggende terræn og kan transportere alt fra grus og blokke til finere sedimenter. Forgrenede vandløb findes i lavere liggende terræn og kan transporteres grus og sand. Meandrerende vandløb findes i fladt terræn og kan transporteres sand og silt.

I et vandløb vil vandet ofte være grumset, dette som følge af materialetransport af suspenderede partikler. Suspension vil sige stoffer, som ikke er opløst i vandet, men holder sig svævende på grund af turbulente strømninger. Dette kan være organiske materialer som plankton, humus, planterester og tørv. I vandet er der også små fragmenter af mineraler, i form af silt, ler funny soccer t shirts, sand og grus, dette kaldes for sedimenter. På grund af erosion og forvitring af bjerg og løsmasser vil der være en konstant tilførsel af sådanne partikler. For eksempel vil tyngdekraften sørge for, at frigjorte sten fra skrænter føres ned over bjergsiderne, yderligere fragmentering sker over lang tid, og før eller siden finder afspaltet materiale vej ud i vandløbene.

Som eksempel kan nævnes, at den gennemsnitlige vandføring i Rhinen er 2.200 m³/s.

Kalinin K-5

The Kalinin K-5 was an airliner produced in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, built in larger quantities than any other Soviet airliner of its time, with some 260 aircraft constructed. It was a conventional, high-wing, strut-braced monoplane with a fully enclosed cabin and cockpit, and followed the general pattern developed by Kalinin in his earlier designs, though on a larger scale.

Kalinin had first considered an airliner for 10-12 passengers as early as 1926, but it was not until Ukrvozduhput expressed interest in such a machine late the following year that work on the design began in earnest. The prototype was ready by mid-autumn 1929, and first flew on October 18 with Mikhail Artemevich Snegirev at the controls. Safety trials for the State Commission commenced on 30 May 1930, and were passed successfully how to quickly tenderize steak.

Ongoing problems with the aircraft’s Gnome et Rhône-built Bristol Jupiter engine resulted in the second prototype being powered by a Pratt & Whitney Hornet instead. This machine undertook further testing and a number of promotional flights before series production of the K-5 commenced. Early production examples were used on trial services between Kharkiv and Moscow, Mineralnye Vody, and Baku. Problems with the Bessonov M-15 engines became quickly apparent, with frequent failures and operational lifespans measured in only dozens of hours. K-5 operations were suspended by the Inspectorate of Civil Aviation until the issues were resolved.

Kalinin turned to the Shvetsov M-22 as an alternative powerplant. While reliability increased vintage football jerseys, this engine installation also created more drag than the M-15 had, and performance decreased accordingly. State Acceptance trials carried out in May–June 1932 confirmed the reliability of the engine with 550 takeoffs and landings and 2,000 steep turns, but found that the payload capacity was now unacceptably low. By this time, however, the M-15 had become reliable enough for restrictions to be lifted and K-5 production resumed, and eventually about 100 K-5s were fitted with this engine. The reliability of the revised M-15 design was vindicated by a gruelling flight through the Caucasus on 25 June 1933.

Eventually, the Mikulin M-17F provided the definitive powerplant for the K-5, offering an increase in power and performance over the M-15, but decreasing the aircraft’s payload and range due to its greater weight. The new engine also required strengthening of the wing design; the first K-5 fitted with this engine suffered structural damage during flight tests due to the increase in engine power.

The K-5 was widely used by Aeroflot, displacing German-built Junkers F 13s and Dornier Komets in regular service

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. The first scheduled route flown by K-5s was Moscow-Kharkov, followed by services between Moscow and Sverdlovsk, Tashkent, and Arkhangelsk. They remained in service until 1940, becoming the backbone of Aeroflot’s domestic operations.

The K-5 was also used by the Soviet Air Force as a transport aircraft, operating in this capacity until 1943.

General characteristics

Performance

Payakumbuh

Payakumbuh (Indonesian: Kota Payakumbuh, Minangkabau: Payokumbuah , Jawi: United States Home HOWARD 1 Jerseys

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,Alkalami,Amiri,FreeSerif,Arial,’Times New Roman’,’Droid Arabic Naskh’,’Microsoft Sans Serif’,’Segoe UI’,’Sakkal Majalla’,’Microsoft Uighur’,’Arabic Typesetting’,sans-serif,serif; font-size: 125%; font-weight:normal;”>ڤاياکومبوه‎) is the second largest city in West Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of over 122,000 people and an area of 80 liter water bottle bpa free.43 km². It is in the Minangkabau Highlands, 120 km by road from the West Sumatran capital city of Padang and 180 km from the Riau capital city of Pekanbaru. The whole area is directly adjacent to the Lima Puluh Kota Regency. It is located near the volcano Mount Merapi, Mount Sago, and Bukit Barisan. Payakumbuh means grassy swamp in the Minangkabau language.

In 2011, Payakumbuh was the cities with highest economic growth in West Sumatra. Innovations in the sanitation, waste management, healthy traditional markets, street vendors coaching, and urban drainage, deliver this city was awarded the “Urban Innovation Management” in 2012. In 2013, Payakumbuh received the “Adipura” (‘cleanest city’) award in the category of small city for the seventh time.

Payakumbuh is known for flying duck races, foods like batiah defuzzer for jumpers, small sweet rice cookies; gelamai, a sweet coconut palm sugared snack; and rendang. Payakumbuh produces a wide range of agriculture products including rice, milk, cattle and palm sugar.

Payakumbuh and surrounding villages, namely Mungka, Simalanggang and Batuhampar are origin of Negeri Sembilan people of Malaysia. Literally translated, the city name means “grassy swamp”. It suggests that the area was originally swampy.

Payakumbuh is connected to Padang and Pekanbaru by road; a dysfunctional railway line also exists. For inner-city transport, Payakumbuh employs a public transportation system known as “Sago”, taken from name of mountain in Payakumbuh. In addition to transport options within the city include bendi, a form of horse-cart.

The city administration is divided into 5 districts (kecamatan), 8 kanagarian, and 76 villages (kelurahan). A mayor (walikota) leads the city administration.

Payakumbuh is considered as one of the most popular cities in West Sumatra for domestic and foreign tourists. The varieties of food, the Muslim clothes stores, and natural scenery are some of the attractions of city. Attractions within and surrounding the city include:

Coordinates: